What is budgetary control?
a. Another name for a flexible budget
b. The degree to which the CFO controls the budget
c. The use of budgets in controlling operations
d. The process of providing information on budget differences to lower level managers
39. A major element in budgetary control is
a. the preparation of long-term plans.
b. the comparison of actual results with planned objectives.
c. the valuation of inventories.
d. approval of the budget by the stockholders.
40. Budget reports should be prepared
d. as frequently as needed.
41. On the basis of the budget reports,
a. management analyzes differences between actual and planned results.
b. management may take corrective action.
c. management may modify the future plans.
d. All of these.
42. The purpose of the departmental overhead cost report is to
a. control indirect labor costs.
b. control selling expense.
c. determine the efficient use of materials.
d. control overhead costs.
43. The purpose of the sales budget report is to
a. control selling expenses.
b. determine whether income objectives are being met.
c. determine whether sales goals are being met.
d. control sales commissions.
44. The comparison of differences between actual and planned results
a. is done by the external auditors.
b. appears on the company’s external financial statements.
c. is usually done orally in departmental meetings.
d. appears on periodic budget reports.
45. A static budget
a. should not be prepared in a company.
b. is useful in evaluating a manager’s performance by comparing actual variable costs and planned variable costs.
c. shows planned results at the original budgeted activity level.
d. is changed only if the actual level of activity is different than originally budgeted.
46. A static budget report
a. shows costs at only 2 or 3 different levels of activity.
b. is appropriate in evaluating a manager’s effectiveness in controlling variable costs.
c. should be used when the actual level of activity is materially different from the master budget activity level.
d. may be appropriate in evaluating a manager’s effectiveness in controlling costs when the behavior of the costs in response to changes in activity is fixed.
47. A static budget is appropriate in evaluating a manager’s performance if
a. actual activity closely approximates the master budget activity.
b. actual activity is less than the master budget activity.
c. the company prepares reports on an annual basis.
d. the company is a not-for-profit organization.
48. When budgeted and actual results are not the same amount, there is a budget
49. Top management’s reaction to a difference between budgeted and actual sales often depends on
a. whether the difference is favorable or unfavorable.
b. whether management anticipated the difference.
c. the materiality of the difference.
d. the personality of the top managers.
50. If costs are not responsive to changes in activity level, then these costs can be best described as
51. Assume that actual sales results exceed the planned results for the second quarter. This favorable difference is greater than the unfavorable difference reported for the first quarter sales. Which of the following statements about the sales budget report on June 30 is true?
a. The year-to-date results will show a favorable difference.
b. The year-to-date results will show an unfavorable difference.
c. The difference for the first quarter can be ignored.
d. The sales report is not useful if it shows a favorable and unfavorable difference for the two quarters.
52. A static budget is appropriate for
a. variable overhead costs.
b. direct materials costs.
c. fixed overhead costs.
d. None of these.
53. What is the primary difference between a static budget and a flexible budget?
a. The static budget contains only fixed costs, while the flexible budget contains only variable costs.
b. The static budget is prepared for a single level of activity, while a flexible budget is adjusted for different activity levels.
c. The static budget is constructed using input from only upper level management, while a flexible budget obtains input from alllevels of management.
d. The static budget is prepared only for units produced, while a flexible budget reflects the number of units sold.
54. Another name for the static budget is
a. master budget.
b. overhead budget.
c. permanent budget.
d. flexible budget.
55. The master budget of Windy Co. shows that the planned activity level for next year is expected to be 50,000 machine hours. At this level of activity, the following manufacturing overhead costs are expected:
Indirect labor $720,000
Machine supplies 180,000
Indirect materials 210,000
Depreciation on factory building 150,000
Total manufacturing overhead $1,260,000
A flexible budget for a level of activity of 60,000 machine hours would show total manufacturing overhead costs of
56. Boland Manufacturing prepared a 2013 budget for 120,000 units of product. Actual production in 2013 was 130,000 units. To be most useful, what amounts should a performance report for this company compare?
a. The actual results for 130,000 units with the original budget for 120,000 units.
b. The actual results for 130,000 units with a new budget for 130,000units.
c. The actual results for 130,000 units with last year’s actualresults for 134,000 units.
d. It doesn’t matter. All of these choices are equally useful.
57. A department has budgeted monthly manufacturing overhead cost of $540,000 plus $3 per direct labor hour. If a flexible budget report reflects $1,044,000 for total budgeted manufacturing cost for the month, the actual level of activity achieved during the month was
a. 528,000 direct labor hours.
b. 168,000 direct labor hours.
c. 348,000 direct labor hours.
d. Cannot be determined from the information provided.
58. Which one of the following would be the same total amount on a flexible budget and a static budget if the activity level is different for the two types of budgets?
a. Direct materials cost
b. Direct labor cost
c. Variable manufacturing overhead
d. Fixed manufacturing overhead
59. In developing a flexible budget within a relevant range of activity,
a. only fixed costs are included.
b. it is necessary to relate variable cost data to the activity index chosen.
c. it is necessary to prepare a budget at 1,000 unit increments.
d. variable and fixed costs are combined and are reported as a total cost.
60. What budgeted amounts appear on the flexible budget?
a. Original budgeted amounts at the static budget activity level
b. Actual costs for the budgeted activity level
c. Budgeted amounts for the actual activity level achieved
d. Actual costs for the estimated activity level
61. The flexible budget
a. is prepared before the master budget.
b. is relevant both within and outside the relevant range.
c. eliminates the need for a master budget.
d. is a series of static budgets at different levels of activity.
62. A flexible budget can be prepared for which of the following budgets comprising the master budget?
c. Direct materials
d. All of these.
63. A flexible budget
a. is prepared when management cannot agree on objectives for the company.
b. projects budget data for various levels of activity.
c. is only useful in controlling fixed costs.
d. cannot be used for evaluation purposes because budgeted data are adjusted to reflect actual results.
64. If a company plans to sell 48,000 units of product but sells 60,000, the most appropriate comparison of the cost data associated with the sales will be by a budget based on
a. the original planned level of activity.
b. 54,000 units of activity.
c. 60,000 units of activity.
d. 48,000 units of activity.
65. Within the relevant range of activity, the behavior of total costs is assumed to be
a. linear and upward sloping.
b. linear and downward sloping.
c. curvilinear and upward sloping.
d. linear to a point and then level off.
66. Sales results that are evaluated by a static budget might show
1. favorable differences that are not justified.
2. unfavorable differences that are not justified.
c. both 1 and 2.
d. neither 1 nor 2.
67. The selection of levels of activity to depict a flexible budget
1. will be within the relevant range.
2. is largely a matter of expediency.
3. is governed by generally accepted accounting principles.
d. 1 and 2
68. Management by exception
a. causes managers to be buried under voluminous paperwork.
b. means that all differences will be investigated.
c. means that only unfavorable differences will be investigated.
d. means that material differences will be investigated.
69. Under management by exception, which differences between planned and actual results should be investigated?
a. Material and noncontrollable
b. Controllable and noncontrollable
c. Material and controllable
d. All differences should be investigated
70. Best Shingle’s budgeted manufacturing costs for 50,000 squares of shingles are:
Fixed manufacturing costs $12,000
Variable manufacturing costs $16.00 per square
Best produced 40,000 squares of shingles during March. How much are budgeted total manufacturing costs in March?
71. A flexible budget depicted graphically
a. is identical to a CVP graph.
b. differs from a CVP graph in the way that fixed costs are shown.
c. differs from a CVP graph in the way that variable costs are shown.
d. differs from a CVP graph in that sales revenue is not shown.
72. The activity index used in preparing the flexible budget
a. is prescribed by generally accepted accounting principles.
b. is only applicable to fixed manufacturing costs.
c. is the same for all departments.
d. should significantly influence the costs that are being budgeted.
73. A static budget is not appropriate in evaluating a manager’s effectiveness if a company has
a. substantial fixed costs.
b. substantial variable costs.
c. planned activity levels that match actual activity levels.
d. no variable costs.
74. Shane Industries prepared a fixed budget of 60,000 direct labor hours, with estimated overhead costs of $300,000 for variable overhead and $90,000 for fixed overhead. Shane then prepared a flexible budget at 57,000 labor hours. How much is total overhead costs at this level of activity?
75. For June, Gold Corp. estimated sales revenue at $600,000. It pays sales commissions that are 4% of sales. The sales manager’s salary is $285,000, estimated shipping expenses total 1% of sales, and miscellaneous selling expenses are $15,000. How much are budgeted selling expenses for the month of July if sales are expected to be $540,000?
76. Nikoto Steel Co. budgeted manufacturing costs for 50,000 tons of steel are:
Fixed manufacturing costs $50,000 per month
Variable manufacturing costs $12.00 per ton of steel
Nikoto produced 40,000 tons of steel during March. How much is the flexible budget for total manufacturing costs for March?
77. Smart Manufacturing budgeted costs for 50,000 linear feet of block are:
Fixed manufacturing costs $24,000 per month
Variable manufacturing costs $16.00 per linear foot
Smart installed 40,000 linear feet of block during March. How much is budgeted total manufacturing costs in March?
78. In the Dichter Co., indirect labor is budgeted for $72,000 and factory supervision is budgeted for $24,000 at normal capacity of 160,000 direct labor hours. If 180,000 direct labor hours are worked, flexible budget total for these costs is