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Question 1.1. _____ is conducted to address a specific business decision for a specific firm or organization. (Points : 1) Basic business research Qualitative business research Quantitative business research Applied business research Question 2.2. All of the following are important aspects of the business research process EXCEPT _____. (Points : 1) gathering information idea and theory development analyzing data making results publicly available Question 3.3. Campbell’s Soup is considering launching a new gumbo product and is testing different recipes with consumers before full commercialization. What type of research is Campbell’s using to determine which soup consumers will like the best? (Points : 1) secondary research basic research applied research test research Question 4.4. All of the following are factors considered when deciding whether or not research is needed EXCEPT _____. (Points : 1) nature of the decision availability of data managerial experience benefits versus costs Question 5.5. A business professor is examining the relationship between age and ethical business behavior. The research is not being conducted for any specific business or even industry, but rather it is intended to better understand and predict this behavior across all aspects of business. This professor is conducting which type of business research? (Points : 1) basic business research formal business research applied business research abstract business research Question 6.6. In general, the ______ important a decision is strategically to the organization, the ______ likely that research will be undertaken. (Points : 1) less; more more; more more; less none of these choices Question 7.7. Consumer research conducted in the United States indicates that many consumers consider the country of origin when purchasing products, and consumers tend to prefer products that are made in the U.S.A. To determine if consumers in other countries are partial to their own country’s products, what must be done before the empirical findings from the research conducted among U.S. consumers also exist and behave similarly in another culture? (Points : 1) reliability assessment cultural cross-validation benefit/cost analysis cultural-monitoring research Question 8.8. When a manager decides not to do research because a decision needs to be made before the results of the study can be analyzed, this is an example of which aspect in the determination of the need for marketing research? (Points : 1) nature of the decision time constraints availability of the data cost considerations Question 9.9. When a manager is trying to decide whether a new product launch decision should be postponed until some additional research can be conducted, which of the following questions should this manager ask himself or herself? (Points : 1) Is the proposed research expenditure the best use of the available funds? Will the information gained by business research improve the quality of the business decision enough to warrant the expenditure? Will the payoff from the research be worth the dollar expenditures for research? all of these choices Question 10.10. A firm focusing more on how to provide value to customers than on the physical product or production process is embracing which business orientation? (Points : 1) marketing orientation quality orientation external orientation value orientation Question 11.11. Wal-Mart is the low-cost leader in retail. This company achieves this success by prioritizing efficiency in its distribution process. Which business orientation is Wal-Mart exhibiting when it prioritizes efficiency and effectiveness of the supply chain process (i.e., getting products into the stores) in making decisions? (Points : 1) production-orientated product-oriented marketing-oriented technically-oriented Question 12.12. _____ is the formal, objective measurement and appraisal of the extent a given activity, project, or program has achieved its objectives or whether continuing programs are presently performing as projected. (Points : 1) Monitoring research Performance research Comprehensive research Evaluation research Question 13.13. All of the following are business orientations EXCEPT _____. (Points : 1) management-oriented product-oriented production-oriented marketing-oriented Question 14.14. Which of the following is the first step in developing a business strategy? (Points : 1) analyzing firm performance identifying problems or opportunities selecting and implementing a course of action diagnosing and assessing problems or opportunities Question 15.15. When conducting research internationally, it is important to _____ research results, which means the researcher verifies that the empirical findings from one culture also exist and behave similarly in another culture. (Points : 1) cross-validate simulate integrate cross-analyze Question 16.16. When Target stores monitors the sales activities of its retail stores in order to detect any indication of dollar sales changes, this is an example of which type of research? (Points : 1) relationship marketing research total quality management research basic research performance-monitoring research Question 17.17. Which of the following refers to the way researchers go about using knowledge and evidence to reach objective conclusions about the real world? (Points : 1) qualitative method quantitative method scientific method primary method Question 18.18. The Chief Financial Officer (CFO) requested research to determine if the financing option the company implemented for a new capital investment initiative achieved the objective of reducing the company’s tax liability. Which type of research is appropriate for evaluating this course of action? (Points : 1) basic research post-hoc research evaluation research financial research Question 19.19. Which of the following is FALSE regarding business research? (Points : 1) Business research covers a wide range of phenomena. Business research is not considered rigorous enough to apply the scientific method. The purpose of business research is to provide knowledge to managers. Business research can be directed toward an element of an organization’s internal operations. Question 20.20. Which type of research tries to verify a theory or to learn more about a business concept and is not intended to solve a particular business problem? (Points : 1) performance-monitoring research basic research total quality management the scientific method Question 21.21. Which of the following is a method of data collection that is used in surveys? (Points : 1) telephone mail the Internet all of these choices Question 22.22. Companies, such as Kraft and Procter & Gamble, conduct research to clarify ambiguous situations or discover ideas that may be potential business opportunities. What type of business research is this? (Points : 1) inferential causal descriptive exploratory Question 23.23. Carol was invited to participate in a research study along with ten other employees to discuss their experiences using the company intranet. The group was asked to discuss their experiences and were encouraged to feed on each other’s comments. What is this type of study called? (Points : 1) multivariate research literature review pretest focus group interview Question 24.24. Jackie has noticed that when the temperature rises, sales at her clothing boutique also rise. This is an example of _____. (Points : 1) concomitant variation nonspurious variation linear variation absolute variation Question 25.25. When the researcher has only one or a small number of research objectives that can be addressed in a single study, that study is referred to as a _____. (Points : 1) research project research program research assessment research snapshot Question 26.26. Which type of association is said to occur when any covariation between a cause and effect is indeed due to the cause and not simply due to some other variable? (Points : 1) nonspurious association spurious association concomitant association temporal association Question 27.27. When drivers are unaware that a machine is recording how many cars pass a certain intersection that is being considered for a site for a new Wendy’s franchise, this is an example of a(n) _____. (Points : 1) obtrusive method unobtrusive method experiment exploratory research study Question 28.28. _____ is the process of developing and deciding among alternative ways of resolving a problem or choosing from among alternative opportunities. (Points : 1) Business Business research Decision making Verification Question 29.29. Which degree of causality means that the cause is necessary and sufficient to bring about the effect? (Points : 1) first-degree causality absolute causality conditional causality contributory causality Question 30.30. Which of the following means that the decision maker has all information needed to make an optimal decision? (Points : 1) certainty ambiguity concomitant variation non-spurious association Question 31.31. _____ means that the researcher alters the level of the experimental variable in specific increments. (Points : 1) Causality Testing Analyzing Manipulation Question 32.32. The Small Business Development Center is conducting an email survey with 25 of its client small businesses to examine the use of mobile marketing applications. This is a precursor to a larger study in which the questionnaire will be sent nationwide to more than 1,000 similar small businesses. This initial small-scale project is known as a _____. (Points : 1) testing study pilot study preliminary study test market Question 33.33. All of the following are examples of exploratory research techniques EXCEPT _____. (Points : 1) previous research pilot studies case studies experimentation Question 34.34. Which of the following is a carefully controlled study in which the researcher manipulates a proposed cause and observes any corresponding change in the proposed effect? (Points : 1) survey unobtrusive observation diagnostic analysis experiment Question 35.35. A researcher has completed the fieldwork of collecting data, and now he is checking the data collection forms for omissions, legibility, and consistency in classification. What is this researcher doing? (Points : 1) analyzing the data editing the data coding the data reporting the results Question 36.36. A conclusion that when one thing happens, another specific thing will follow is known as a _____. (Points : 1) diagnostic analysis manipulation causal inference deliverable Question 37.37. Which of the following represents a situation that makes some potential competitive advantage possible for a business? (Points : 1) business threat forward linkage symptom business opportunity Question 38.38. The Food and Drug Administration is targeting salt in processed foods as a health hazard, and some experts believe the agency will require food manufacturers to limit the amount of salt in processed foods. However, the reduction will occur in phases, with salt content being reduced in steps so that consumers will be weaned off of salt gradually. Carefully controlled research studies are underway in which the salt levels are varied and consumers’ reactions to the taste are measured. This research is an example of a(n) _____. (Points : 1) exploratory study descriptive study experiment diagnostic analysis Question 39.39. Which of the following involves any procedure that draws conclusions based on measurements of a portion of the entire population? (Points : 1) sampling theorizing segmenting causal inference Question 40.40. Janna discovers a market segment that is underserved by competitors’ products. For Janna’s company, this segment represents a _____. (Points : 1) business threat business opportunity backward linkage test market Question 41.41. All of the following are gaps that represent problems EXCEPT _____. (Points : 1) actual business performance is less than possible business performance actual business performance is greater than expected business performance actual business performance is worse than expected business performance expected business performance is greater than possible business performance Question 42.42. A(n) _____ variable is one that is expected to influence the dependent variable in some way. (Points : 1) primary interactive independent first-order Question 43.43. A written expression of the key question(s) that a research user wishes to answer is referred to as a _____. (Points : 1) problem definition decision statement research proposal hypothesis Question 44.44. A researcher is asking managers and line workers questions such as what type of problems they experience, where they are most likely to experience them, who is responsible for them, and how the problems get resolved. Asking these what, where, who, when, why, and how questions to get a better understanding of his client’s business decision-making situation is an example of using _____. (Points : 1) peeling techniques iceberg technique 80/20 techniques interrogative techniques Question 45.45. Once the researcher has identified the key symptoms and identified the key problem(s) from those symptoms, what is the next step the researcher will take in the problem-definition process? (Points : 1) determine the unit of analysis write managerial decision statement and corresponding research objectives determine the relevant variables and how to measure them write research questions and/or research hypotheses Question 46.46. A researcher is gathering background information to familiarize himself with his new client’s business environment. He is analyzing marketplace conditions and conducting interviews with employees of the company. This researcher is conducting a _____. (Points : 1) gap analysis pre-research analysis basic analysis situation analysis Question 47.47. Which of the following is a possible unit of analysis in a research study? (Points : 1) an employee a sales region a zip code area all of these choices Question 48.48. What type of variable is “gender”? (Points : 1) continuous variable primary variable dependent variable categorical variable Question 49.49. Which type of variable indicates membership in some group? (Points : 1) continuous variable categorical variable lexicographic variable dependent variable Question 50.50. A(n) _____ involves the gathering of background information to familiarize researchers and managers with the decision-making environment. (Points : 1) situation analysis exploratory review environmental scan preliminary analysis Question 51.51. Which of the following make defining problems more difficult? (Points : 1) situation is recurring or routine a dramatic change occurs symptoms are scattered symptoms are consistent Question 52.52. An interview technique that tries to draw deeper and more elaborate explanations from the discussion is called _____. (Points : 1) probing peeling immersion ethnography Question 53.53. All of the following are types of variables EXCEPT _____. (Points : 1) continuous categorical constant dependent Question 54.54. A(n) _____ is a process outcome or a variable that is predicted and/or explained by other variables. (Points : 1) primary variable absolute variable dependent variable independent variable Question 55.55. All of the following are steps in the problem-definition process EXCEPT _____. (Points : 1) identify key problem(s) from symptoms determine the unit of analysis develop dummy tables determine relevant variables Question 56.56. Which of the following is the most important question a researcher can ask when using a probing technique? (Points : 1) How does that make you feel? Why do you think that is so? What has changed? What does _____ make you think of? Question 57.57. Sharon is a management professor who received a grant from the American Management Association to study how employees make decisions in cross-functional groups. Sharon’s research is _____. (Points : 1) applied business research dependent business research funded business research analytical business research Question 58.58. Which of the following is the FIRST step of the problem definition process? (Points : 1) determine the unit of analysis identify the problem identify key symptoms in the situation determine the relevant variables Question 59.59. In the statement: “Years of sales experience is an important predictor of dollar sales performance,” what type of variable is “dollar sales performance”? (Points : 1) dependent variable categorical variable classificatory variable independent variable Question 60.60. Todd has prepared a document that includes the deliverables and a definition of the problem for a research client. In this document, he described how he will conduct a survey along with a schedule of costs and deadlines. What is this document called? (Points : 1) research proposal research statement research blueprint managerial action statement Question 61.61. The process of changing the original form of data to a format more suitable for achieving a stated research objective is called _____. (Points : 1) data conversion reliability assessment cross-checking data mining Question 62.62. Many retailers mine the databases provided by checkout scanners to identify coinciding purchases or relationships between products purchased and other retail shopping information. This type of analysis is referred to as ____. (Points : 1) neural networking scandowns database marketing market-basket analysis Question 63.63. What is it called when a researcher compares secondary data from one source with data from another? (Points : 1) data conversion cross-check data mining data enhancement Question 64.64. Sherrie is interested in average monthly sales for smartphones in the United States. She found information on the Internet that gives annual sales, so she took the annual sales and divided it by twelve to get a monthly average. This is an example of _____. (Points : 1) data mining data division data conversion data validation Question 65.65. Which of the following data can be purchased from commercial sources? (Points : 1) advertising research market-share data consumer attitudes and public opinions all of these choices Question 66.66. When a manager reads publications like The Wall Street Journal and BloombergBusinessweek to try to determine changes in consumer behavior and employment issues, this is a form of _____, (Points : 1) environmental scanning model building database marketing data mining Question 67.67. What term is used by the marketing research industry to refer to diverse types of data offered by a single company? (Points : 1) primary data single-source data compound data integrated data Question 68.68. Asking a group of households to record their consumption of certain products over a two-year period is an example of _____. (Points : 1) model building database marketing data conversion diary panel data Question 69.69. _____ involves specifying relationships between two or more variables, perhaps extending to the development of descriptive or predictive equations. (Points : 1) Data transformation Data analysis Model building Fact-finding Question 70.70. A researcher who is interested in new car sales but who discovers that the secondary data from the U.S. government are in the form of statistics that include both car and light truck sales combined in the data has discovered that the data fail to meet which criterion? (Points : 1) Are the data in the correct unit of measurement? Do the data apply to the time period of interest? Are the data supplied by a reputable source? Do the data show evidence of reliability and validity? Question 71.71. Lance has noticed that companies that advertise a lot seem to have higher sales than those that do not. His use of secondary data to help specify this relationship is an example of _____. (Points : 1) data conversion validation reliability model building Question 72.72. The simplest form of secondary-data research is _____. (Points : 1) fact-finding model building forecasting sales database marketing Question 73.73. Facts observed, recorded, and stored by an entity outside of the researcher’s organization are called _____. (Points : 1) proprietary data external data internal data primary data Question 74.74. All of the following are producers of external secondary data EXCEPT _____. (Points : 1) libraries trade associations government media Question 75.75. If the population of a city is 230,000 and its annual per person expenditure on athletic shoes is $45, if there are 64,688 square feet of retail space used to sell athletic shoes in this city, its index of retail saturation is _____. (Points : 1) 3.56 12.65 159.99 330.06 Question 76.76. L.L.Bean is a retailer best-known for direct marketing through catalogs and the Internet. Laurie purchased from the retailer quite frequently, but since her daughter started college she hasn’t had as much disposable income and stopped ordering merchandise. The elapsed time since her last purchase triggered an offer for $20 off her next purchase from the retailer. This is an example of _____. (Points : 1) database marketing neural networks customer discovery electronic marketing Question 77.77. Many companies use powerful computers to dig through volumes of data to discover patterns about their customers and products. This activity is called _____. (Points : 1) data mining data digging sugging neural networking Question 78.78. Which of the following is TRUE regarding U.S. government sources of secondary data? (Points : 1) Most of the data published by the U.S. federal government can be counted on for accuracy and quality of investigation. Provides a real-time view of business news and financial statistics including stock values, exchange rates, and more. Provides customer satisfaction ratings for hundreds of large firms doing business in the United States. Reports market-share data using Universal Product Codes (UPC) and optical scanning at retail store checkouts. Question 79.79. Obtaining secondary data is typically ______ and ______ expensive than obtaining primary data. (Points : 1) faster; more slower; more faster; less slower; less Question 80.80. Which of the following is FALSE regarding sales forecasting? (Points : 1) The moving average forecasting is best suited to a dynamic competitive environment. Accurate sales forecasts frequently come from secondary data research. Simple moving averages are often applied in practice. Marketing researchers often use internal company sales records to project sales. Question 81.81. Anything that may assume different numerical values is considered a(n) _____. (Points : 1) variable construct item data point Question 82.82. In theory development, which of the following is the level of knowledge expressing a concept that exists only as an idea or a quality apart from an object? (Points : 1) empirical level primary level conceptual level abstract level Question 83.83. The logical process of establishing a general proposition on the basis of observation of particular facts is known as _____. (Points : 1) deductive reasoning generalized reasoning inductive reasoning conceptual reasoning Question 84.84. Which of the following means that something has been examined against reality using data? (Points : 1) causality manipulation empirical testing spurious association Question 85.85. The organization of concepts in sequence from the most concrete and individual to the most general is called the _____. (Points : 1) conceptual hierarchy ladder of abstraction conceptual progression operationalization of constructs Question 86.86. Empathy is a concept that is not directly observable or measurable but is measured through other measures, such as an individual’s thoughts and behaviors toward others. This is an example of a(n) _____. (Points : 1) latent construct empirical construct secondary construct higher order construct Question 87.87. At what level do we “experience” reality? (Points : 1) empirical level abstract level primary level secondary level Question 88.88. A formal, logical explanation of some events that includes descriptions of how things relate to one another is called a(n) _____. (Points : 1) hypothesis theory causal statement empirical study Question 89.89. Which of the following is an empirical assessment of a concept? (Points : 1) hypothesis variable construct item Question 90.90. Self-efficacy, which is a generalized idea about how humans perceive their own abilities, is an example of a(n) _____. (Points : 1) hypothesis proposition concept abstraction Question 91.91. Which of the following is a statement explaining the logical linkage among certain concepts by asserting a universal connection between concepts? (Points : 1) hypothesis proposition construct theory Question 92.92. When the data from an empirical study are consistent with a research hypothesis, we say that the hypothesis is _____. (Points : 1) confirmed conclusive supported true Question 93.93. If all the trees a person has seen in his life have been green and therefore he concludes that all trees are green, which type of reasoning is he using? (Points : 1) deductive reasoning inductive reasoning generalized reasoning conceptual reasoning Question 94.94. When a researcher collects data to test the hypothesis that consumers will be more satisfied if a business offers compensation after the consumer complains, we say that _____ testing is being conducted. (Points : 1) validation confirmation observational empirical Question 95.95. Psychologists explain that humans’ better recall of information that is presented visually compared to information presented verbally is due to the fact that the information is stored both visually and verbally. Because it is stored using this dual-coding process, it is easier to retrieve from memory. This formal logical explanation of this phenomenon is an example of a(n) _____. (Points : 1) theory construct operationalization abstraction Question 96.96. What is the LAST step in the application of the scientific method? (Points : 1) assessment of relevant existing knowledge of a phenomenon proposal of an explanation of the phenomenon and statement of new problems raised by the research design of research to test the hypothesis acquisition of meaningful empirical data Question 97.97. What are the two goals of theory? (Points : 1) speculating and confirming understanding and predicting deducting and inducting abstracting and concretizing Question 98.98. Which of the following is considered the basic unit for theory development? (Points : 1) concept proposition hypothesis variable Question 99.99. A concept that is not directly observable or measurable but can be estimated through proxy measures is called a(n) _____. (Points : 1) indirect construct secondary construct higher order construct latent construct Question 100.100. A(n) ____ is a generalized idea about a class of objects that has been given a name. (Points : 1) variable theory node construct

Question 1.1.
_____ is conducted to address a specific business decision for a specific firm or organization.

(Points : 1)
Basic business research
Qualitative business research
Quantitative business research
Applied business research
Question 2.2.
All of the following are important aspects of the business research process EXCEPT _____.

(Points : 1)

gathering information
idea and theory development
analyzing data
making results publicly available
Question 3.3.
Campbell’s Soup is considering launching a new gumbo product and is testing different recipes with consumers before full commercialization. What type of research is Campbell’s using to determine which soup consumers will like the best?
(Points : 1)
secondary research
basic research
applied research
test research

Question 4.4.
All of the following are factors considered when deciding whether or not research is needed EXCEPT _____.
(Points : 1)
nature of the decision
availability of data
managerial experience
benefits versus costs

Question 5.5.
A business professor is examining the relationship between age and ethical business behavior. The research is not being conducted for any specific business or even industry, but rather it is intended to better understand and predict this behavior across all aspects of business. This professor is conducting which type of business research?

(Points : 1)

basic business research
formal business research
applied business research
abstract business research

Question 6.6.
In general, the ______ important a decision is strategically to the organization, the ______ likely that research will be undertaken.
(Points : 1)
less; more
more; more
more; less
none of these choices
Question 7.7.
Consumer research conducted in the United States indicates that many consumers consider the country of origin when purchasing products, and consumers tend to prefer products that are made in the U.S.A. To determine if consumers in other countries are partial to their own country’s products, what must be done before the empirical findings from the research conducted among U.S. consumers also exist and behave similarly in another culture?

(Points : 1)

reliability assessment
cultural cross-validation
benefit/cost analysis
cultural-monitoring research
Question 8.8.
When a manager decides not to do research because a decision needs to be made before the results of the study can be analyzed, this is an example of which aspect in the determination of the need for marketing research?

(Points : 1)
nature of the decision
time constraints
availability of the data
cost considerations
Question 9.9.
When a manager is trying to decide whether a new product launch decision should be postponed until some additional research can be conducted, which of the following questions should this manager ask himself or herself?
(Points : 1)
Is the proposed research expenditure the best use of the available funds?
Will the information gained by business research improve the quality of the business decision enough to warrant the expenditure?
Will the payoff from the research be worth the dollar expenditures for research?
all of these choices

Question 10.10.
A firm focusing more on how to provide value to customers than on the physical product or production process is embracing which business orientation?

(Points : 1)
marketing orientation
quality orientation
external orientation
value orientation

Question 11.11.
Wal-Mart is the low-cost leader in retail. This company achieves this success by prioritizing efficiency in its distribution process. Which business orientation is Wal-Mart exhibiting when it prioritizes efficiency and effectiveness of the supply chain process (i.e., getting products into the stores) in making decisions?
(Points : 1)

production-orientated
product-oriented
marketing-oriented
technically-oriented
Question 12.12.
_____ is the formal, objective measurement and appraisal of the extent a given activity, project, or program has achieved its objectives or whether continuing programs are presently performing as projected.
(Points : 1)
Monitoring research
Performance research
Comprehensive research
Evaluation research

Question 13.13.
All of the following are business orientations EXCEPT _____.
(Points : 1)
management-oriented
product-oriented
production-oriented
marketing-oriented
Question 14.14.
Which of the following is the first step in developing a business strategy?
(Points : 1)
analyzing firm performance
identifying problems or opportunities
selecting and implementing a course of action
diagnosing and assessing problems or opportunities
Question 15.15.
When conducting research internationally, it is important to _____ research results, which means the researcher verifies that the empirical findings from one culture also exist and behave similarly in another culture.
(Points : 1)
cross-validate
simulate
integrate
cross-analyze

Question 16.16.
When Target stores monitors the sales activities of its retail stores in order to detect any indication of dollar sales changes, this is an example of which type of research?
(Points : 1)
relationship marketing research
total quality management research
basic research
performance-monitoring research
Question 17.17.
Which of the following refers to the way researchers go about using knowledge and evidence to reach objective conclusions about the real world?
(Points : 1)
qualitative method
quantitative method
scientific method
primary method
Question 18.18.
The Chief Financial Officer (CFO) requested research to determine if the financing option the company implemented for a new capital investment initiative achieved the objective of reducing the company’s tax liability. Which type of research is appropriate for evaluating this course of action?
(Points : 1)
basic research
post-hoc research
evaluation research
financial research
Question 19.19.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding business research?
(Points : 1)
Business research covers a wide range of phenomena.
Business research is not considered rigorous enough to apply the scientific method.
The purpose of business research is to provide knowledge to managers.
Business research can be directed toward an element of an organization’s internal operations.

Question 20.20.
Which type of research tries to verify a theory or to learn more about a business concept and is not intended to solve a particular business problem?
(Points : 1)
performance-monitoring research
basic research
total quality management
the scientific method

Question 21.21.
Which of the following is a method of data collection that is used in surveys?
(Points : 1)
telephone
mail
the Internet
all of these choices
Question 22.22.
Companies, such as Kraft and Procter & Gamble, conduct research to clarify ambiguous situations or discover ideas that may be potential business opportunities. What type of business research is this?
(Points : 1)
inferential
causal
descriptive
exploratory

Question 23.23.
Carol was invited to participate in a research study along with ten other employees to discuss their experiences using the company intranet. The group was asked to discuss their experiences and were encouraged to feed on each other’s comments. What is this type of study called?
(Points : 1)
multivariate research
literature review
pretest
focus group interview

Question 24.24.
Jackie has noticed that when the temperature rises, sales at her clothing boutique also rise. This is an example of _____.
(Points : 1)
concomitant variation
nonspurious variation
linear variation
absolute variation

Question 25.25.
When the researcher has only one or a small number of research objectives that can be addressed in a single study, that study is referred to as a _____.
(Points : 1)
research project
research program
research assessment
research snapshot

Question 26.26.
Which type of association is said to occur when any covariation between a cause and effect is indeed due to the cause and not simply due to some other variable?
(Points : 1)
nonspurious association
spurious association
concomitant association
temporal association

 
Question 27.27.
When drivers are unaware that a machine is recording how many cars pass a certain intersection that is being considered for a site for a new Wendy’s franchise, this is an example of a(n) _____.
(Points : 1)
obtrusive method
unobtrusive method
experiment
exploratory research study
Question 28.28.
_____ is the process of developing and deciding among alternative ways of resolving a problem or choosing from among alternative opportunities.
(Points : 1)
Business
Business research
Decision making
Verification

Question 29.29.
Which degree of causality means that the cause is necessary and sufficient to bring about the effect?
(Points : 1)
first-degree causality
absolute causality
conditional causality
contributory causality
Question 30.30.
Which of the following means that the decision maker has all information needed to make an optimal decision?
(Points : 1)

certainty
ambiguity
concomitant variation
non-spurious association

Question 31.31.
_____ means that the researcher alters the level of the experimental variable in specific increments.
(Points : 1)
Causality
Testing
Analyzing
Manipulation

Question 32.32.
The Small Business Development Center is conducting an email survey with 25 of its client small businesses to examine the use of mobile marketing applications. This is a precursor to a larger study in which the questionnaire will be sent nationwide to more than 1,000 similar small businesses. This initial small-scale project is known as a _____.
(Points : 1)
testing study
pilot study
preliminary study
test market
Question 33.33.
All of the following are examples of exploratory research techniques EXCEPT _____.
(Points : 1)
previous research
pilot studies
case studies
experimentation

Question 34.34.
Which of the following is a carefully controlled study in which the researcher manipulates a proposed cause and observes any corresponding change in the proposed effect?
(Points : 1)
survey
unobtrusive observation
diagnostic analysis
experiment
Question 35.35.
A researcher has completed the fieldwork of collecting data, and now he is checking the data collection forms for omissions, legibility, and consistency in classification. What is this researcher doing?
(Points : 1)

analyzing the data
editing the data
coding the data
reporting the results

 

Question 36.36.
A conclusion that when one thing happens, another specific thing will follow is known as a _____.
(Points : 1)

diagnostic analysis
manipulation
causal inference
deliverable

 

Question 37.37.
Which of the following represents a situation that makes some potential competitive advantage possible for a business?
(Points : 1)

business threat
forward linkage
symptom

business opportunity

 

Question 38.38.
The Food and Drug Administration is targeting salt in processed foods as a health hazard, and some experts believe the agency will require food manufacturers to limit the amount of salt in processed foods. However, the reduction will occur in phases, with salt content being reduced in steps so that consumers will be weaned off of salt gradually. Carefully controlled research studies are underway in which the salt levels are varied and consumers’ reactions to the taste are measured. This research is an example of a(n) _____.
(Points : 1)

exploratory study
descriptive study
experiment
diagnostic analysis

 

Question 39.39.
Which of the following involves any procedure that draws conclusions based on measurements of a portion of the entire population?
(Points : 1)

sampling
theorizing
segmenting
causal inference

 

Question 40.40.
Janna discovers a market segment that is underserved by competitors’ products. For Janna’s company, this segment represents a _____.
(Points : 1)

business threat
business opportunity
backward linkage
test market

 

Question 41.41.
All of the following are gaps that represent problems EXCEPT _____.
(Points : 1)

actual business performance is less than possible business performance
actual business performance is greater than expected business performance
actual business performance is worse than expected business performance
expected business performance is greater than possible business performance

 

Question 42.42.
A(n) _____ variable is one that is expected to influence the dependent variable in some way.
(Points : 1)

primary
interactive
independent
first-order

 

Question 43.43.
A written expression of the key question(s) that a research user wishes to answer is referred to as a _____.
(Points : 1)

problem definition
decision statement
research proposal
hypothesis

 

Question 44.44.
A researcher is asking managers and line workers questions such as what type of problems they experience, where they are most likely to experience them, who is responsible for them, and how the problems get resolved. Asking these what, where, who, when, why, and how questions to get a better understanding of his client’s business decision-making situation is an example of using _____.
(Points : 1)

peeling techniques
iceberg technique
80/20 techniques
interrogative techniques

 

Question 45.45.
Once the researcher has identified the key symptoms and identified the key problem(s) from those symptoms, what is the next step the researcher will take in the problem-definition process?
(Points : 1)

determine the unit of analysis
write managerial decision statement and corresponding research objectives
determine the relevant variables and how to measure them
write research questions and/or research hypotheses

 

Question 46.46.
A researcher is gathering background information to familiarize himself with his new client’s business environment. He is analyzing marketplace conditions and conducting interviews with employees of the company. This researcher is conducting a _____.
(Points : 1)

gap analysis
pre-research analysis
basic analysis
situation analysis

 

Question 47.47.
Which of the following is a possible unit of analysis in a research study?
(Points : 1)

an employee
a sales region
a zip code area
all of these choices

 

Question 48.48.
What type of variable is “gender”?
(Points : 1)

continuous variable
primary variable
dependent variable
categorical variable

 

Question 49.49.
Which type of variable indicates membership in some group?
(Points : 1)

continuous variable
categorical variable
lexicographic variable
dependent variable

 

Question 50.50.
A(n) _____ involves the gathering of background information to familiarize researchers and managers with the decision-making environment.
(Points : 1)

situation analysis
exploratory review
environmental scan
preliminary analysis

 

Question 51.51.
Which of the following make defining problems more difficult?
(Points : 1)

situation is recurring or routine
a dramatic change occurs
symptoms are scattered
symptoms are consistent

 

Question 52.52.
An interview technique that tries to draw deeper and more elaborate explanations from the discussion is called _____.
(Points : 1)

probing
peeling
immersion
ethnography

 

Question 53.53.
All of the following are types of variables EXCEPT _____.
(Points : 1)

continuous
categorical
constant
dependent

 

Question 54.54.
A(n) _____ is a process outcome or a variable that is predicted and/or explained by other variables.
(Points : 1)

primary variable
absolute variable
dependent variable
independent variable

 

Question 55.55.
All of the following are steps in the problem-definition process EXCEPT _____.
(Points : 1)

identify key problem(s) from symptoms
determine the unit of analysis
develop dummy tables
determine relevant variables

 

Question 56.56.
Which of the following is the most important question a researcher can ask when using a probing technique?
(Points : 1)

How does that make you feel?
Why do you think that is so?
What has changed?
What does _____ make you think of?

 

Question 57.57.
Sharon is a management professor who received a grant from the American Management Association to study how employees make decisions in cross-functional groups. Sharon’s research is _____.
(Points : 1)

applied business research
dependent business research
funded business research
analytical business research

 

Question 58.58.
Which of the following is the FIRST step of the problem definition process?
(Points : 1)

determine the unit of analysis
identify the problem
identify key symptoms in the situation
determine the relevant variables

 

Question 59.59.
In the statement: “Years of sales experience is an important predictor of dollar sales performance,” what type of variable is “dollar sales performance”?
(Points : 1)

dependent variable
categorical variable
classificatory variable
independent variable

 

Question 60.60.
Todd has prepared a document that includes the deliverables and a definition of the problem for a research client. In this document, he described how he will conduct a survey along with a schedule of costs and deadlines. What is this document called?
(Points : 1)

research proposal
research statement
research blueprint
managerial action statement

 

Question 61.61.
The process of changing the original form of data to a format more suitable for achieving a stated research objective is called _____.
(Points : 1)

data conversion
reliability assessment
cross-checking
data mining

 

Question 62.62.
Many retailers mine the databases provided by checkout scanners to identify coinciding purchases or relationships between products purchased and other retail shopping information. This type of analysis is referred to as ____.
(Points : 1)

neural networking
scandowns
database marketing
market-basket analysis

 

Question 63.63.
What is it called when a researcher compares secondary data from one source with data from another?
(Points : 1)

data conversion
cross-check
data mining
data enhancement

 

Question 64.64.
Sherrie is interested in average monthly sales for smartphones in the United States. She found information on the Internet that gives annual sales, so she took the annual sales and divided it by twelve to get a monthly average. This is an example of _____.
(Points : 1)

data mining
data division
data conversion
data validation

 

Question 65.65.
Which of the following data can be purchased from commercial sources?
(Points : 1)

advertising research
market-share data
consumer attitudes and public opinions
all of these choices

 

Question 66.66.
When a manager reads publications like The Wall Street Journal and BloombergBusinessweek to try to determine changes in consumer behavior and employment issues, this is a form of _____,
(Points : 1)

environmental scanning
model building
database marketing
data mining

 

Question 67.67.
What term is used by the marketing research industry to refer to diverse types of data offered by a single company?
(Points : 1)

primary data
single-source data
compound data
integrated data

 

Question 68.68.
Asking a group of households to record their consumption of certain products over a two-year period is an example of _____.
(Points : 1)

model building
database marketing
data conversion
diary panel data
Question 69.69.
_____ involves specifying relationships between two or more variables, perhaps extending to the development of descriptive or predictive equations.
(Points : 1)

Data transformation
Data analysis
Model building
Fact-finding

 

Question 70.70.
A researcher who is interested in new car sales but who discovers that the secondary data from the U.S. government are in the form of statistics that include both car and light truck sales combined in the data has discovered that the data fail to meet which criterion?
(Points : 1)

Are the data in the correct unit of measurement?
Do the data apply to the time period of interest?
Are the data supplied by a reputable source?
Do the data show evidence of reliability and validity?

 

Question 71.71.
Lance has noticed that companies that advertise a lot seem to have higher sales than those that do not. His use of secondary data to help specify this relationship is an example of _____.
(Points : 1)

data conversion
validation
reliability
model building

 

Question 72.72.
The simplest form of secondary-data research is _____.
(Points : 1)

fact-finding
model building
forecasting sales
database marketing

 

Question 73.73.
Facts observed, recorded, and stored by an entity outside of the researcher’s organization are called _____.
(Points : 1)

proprietary data
external data
internal data
primary data

 

Question 74.74.
All of the following are producers of external secondary data EXCEPT _____.
(Points : 1)

libraries
trade associations
government
media

 

Question 75.75.
If the population of a city is 230,000 and its annual per person expenditure on athletic shoes is $45, if there are 64,688 square feet of retail space used to sell athletic shoes in this city, its index of retail saturation is _____.
(Points : 1)

3.56
12.65
159.99
330.06

 

Question 76.76.
L.L.Bean is a retailer best-known for direct marketing through catalogs and the Internet. Laurie purchased from the retailer quite frequently, but since her daughter started college she hasn’t had as much disposable income and stopped ordering merchandise. The elapsed time since her last purchase triggered an offer for $20 off her next purchase from the retailer. This is an example of _____.
(Points : 1)

database marketing
neural networks
customer discovery
electronic marketing

 

Question 77.77.
Many companies use powerful computers to dig through volumes of data to discover patterns about their customers and products. This activity is called _____.
(Points : 1)

data mining
data digging
sugging
neural networking

 

Question 78.78.
Which of the following is TRUE regarding U.S. government sources of secondary data?
(Points : 1)

Most of the data published by the U.S. federal government can be counted on for accuracy and quality of investigation.
Provides a real-time view of business news and financial statistics including stock values, exchange rates, and more.
Provides customer satisfaction ratings for hundreds of large firms doing business in the United States.
Reports market-share data using Universal Product Codes (UPC) and optical scanning at retail store checkouts.

 

Question 79.79.
Obtaining secondary data is typically ______ and ______ expensive than obtaining primary data.
(Points : 1)

faster; more
slower; more
faster; less
slower; less

 

Question 80.80.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding sales forecasting?
(Points : 1)

The moving average forecasting is best suited to a dynamic competitive environment.
Accurate sales forecasts frequently come from secondary data research.
Simple moving averages are often applied in practice.
Marketing researchers often use internal company sales records to project sales.

 

Question 81.81. Anything that may assume different numerical values is considered a(n) _____. (Points : 1)
variable
construct
item
data point
Question 82.82. In theory development, which of the following is the level of knowledge expressing a concept that exists only as an idea or a quality apart from an object?
(Points : 1)
empirical level
primary level
conceptual level
abstract level
Question 83.83. The logical process of establishing a general proposition on the basis of observation of particular facts is known as _____. (Points : 1)
deductive reasoning
generalized reasoning
inductive reasoning
conceptual reasoning
Question 84.84. Which of the following means that something has been examined against reality using data? (Points : 1)
causality
manipulation
empirical testing
spurious association
Question 85.85. The organization of concepts in sequence from the most concrete and individual to the most general is called the _____. (Points : 1)
conceptual hierarchy
ladder of abstraction
conceptual progression
operationalization of constructs
Question 86.86. Empathy is a concept that is not directly observable or measurable but is measured through other measures, such as an individual’s thoughts and behaviors toward others. This is an example of a(n) _____. (Points : 1)
latent construct
empirical construct
secondary construct
higher order construct
Question 87.87. At what level do we “experience” reality? (Points : 1)
empirical level
abstract level
primary level
secondary level
Question 88.88. A formal, logical explanation of some events that includes descriptions of how things relate to one another is called a(n) _____. (Points : 1)
hypothesis
theory
causal statement
empirical study
Question 89.89. Which of the following is an empirical assessment of a concept? (Points : 1)
hypothesis
variable
construct
item
Question 90.90. Self-efficacy, which is a generalized idea about how humans perceive their own abilities, is an example of a(n) _____. (Points : 1)
hypothesis
proposition
concept
abstraction
Question 91.91. Which of the following is a statement explaining the logical linkage among certain concepts by asserting a universal connection between concepts? (Points : 1)
hypothesis
proposition
construct
theory
Question 92.92. When the data from an empirical study are consistent with a research hypothesis, we say that the hypothesis is _____. (Points : 1)
confirmed
conclusive
supported
true
Question 93.93. If all the trees a person has seen in his life have been green and therefore he concludes that all trees are green, which type of reasoning is he using? (Points : 1)
deductive reasoning
inductive reasoning
generalized reasoning
conceptual reasoning
Question 94.94. When a researcher collects data to test the hypothesis that consumers will be more satisfied if a business offers compensation after the consumer complains, we say that _____ testing is being conducted. (Points : 1)
validation
confirmation
observational
empirical
Question 95.95. Psychologists explain that humans’ better recall of information that is presented visually compared to information presented verbally is due to the fact that the information is stored both visually and verbally. Because it is stored using this dual-coding process, it is easier to retrieve from memory. This formal logical explanation of this phenomenon is an example of a(n) _____. (Points : 1)
theory
construct
operationalization
abstraction
Question 96.96. What is the LAST step in the application of the scientific method? (Points : 1)
assessment of relevant existing knowledge of a phenomenon
proposal of an explanation of the phenomenon and statement of new problems raised by the research
design of research to test the hypothesis
acquisition of meaningful empirical data
Question 97.97. What are the two goals of theory? (Points : 1)
speculating and confirming
understanding and predicting
deducting and inducting
abstracting and concretizing
Question 98.98. Which of the following is considered the basic unit for theory development? (Points : 1)
concept
proposition
hypothesis
variable
Question 99.99. A concept that is not directly observable or measurable but can be estimated through proxy measures is called a(n) _____. (Points : 1)
indirect construct
secondary construct
higher order construct
latent construct

Human Resource Management: List the pros and cons of employee drug testing
Question 100.100. A(n) ____ is a generalized idea about a class of objects that has been given a name. (Points : 1)
variable
theory
node
construct

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