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part 1 of 2 – Multiple Choice 60.0 Points There is only one correct answer for each question. Be sure to choose the right one! Question 1 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following refers to developing a distinct image for a product in the mind of the consumer? A. Targeting B. Placement C. Segmenting D. Positioning E. Promotion Question 2 of 64 1.0 Points Motivation is produced by a state of tension, which exists as the result of what? A. Satisfied desires B. Unrealized desires C. Unfulfilled needs D. Environmental forces E. Peer pressure Question 3 of 64 1.0 Points The likelihood of a consumer accepting or rejecting foreign-made products is known as which of the following? A. Consumer understanding B. Consumer innovativeness C. Consumer ethnocentrism D. Consumer perception E. Consumer materialism Question 4 of 64 1.0 Points How receptive a person is to new experiences is known as which of the following? A. Consumer innovativeness B. Consumer perception C. Consumer understanding D. Consumer ethnocentrism E. Consumer materialism Question 5 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following is the process through which individuals learn behavior by observing the behavior of others and the consequences of such behavior? A. Massed learning B. Positioning C. Passive learning D. Modeling E. Distributed learning Question 6 of 64 1.0 Points In the study of personality, three distinct properties are of central importance. What are these? A. Personality reflects individual differences, personality is consistent and enduring, and personality does not change B. Personality reflects individual differences, personality is inconsistent and fleeting, and personality can change C. Personality reflects similarities between individuals, personality is consistent and enduring, and personality does not change D. Personality reflects individual differences, personality is consistent and enduring, and personality can change E. Personality reflects similarities between individuals, personality is consistent and enduring, and personality can change Question 7 of 64 1.0 Points Concerning the arousal of human motives, which school sees behavior as a response to a stimulus, and elements of conscious thought are ignored? A. Behaviorist B. Cognitive C. Analytical D. Market-driven E. Emotional Question 8 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following types of goals are defined as general classes or categories of goals that consumers see as a means to fulfill their needs? A. Objective goals B. Subjective goals C. General goals D. Product-oriented goals E. Generic goals Question 9 of 64 1.0 Points Needs that we learn in response to our culture or environment are which type of needs? A. Acculturated B. Primary C. Biogenic D. Innate E. Acquired Question 10 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following is defined as “any distinguishing, relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another”? A. Characteristic B. Individualism C. Creativity D. Personality E. Trait Question 11 of 64 1.0 Points Reinforcement performed before the desired consumer behavior actually takes place is called what? A. Positioning B. Licensing C. Passive learning D. Shaping E. Preemptive reward Question 12 of 64 1.0 Points According to the trio-of-basic-needs theory, the trio of basic needs includes what? A. Environment, affection, self-actualization B. Achievement, affection, power C. Power, affiliation, and achievement D. Safety, physical satisfaction, social belonging E. Prestige, affiliation, and achievement Question 13 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following increases the strength of the association between a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus and slows the process of forgetting? A. Stimulus generalization B. Modeling C. Repetition D. Sensory stores E. Shaping Question 14 of 64 1.0 Points When marketers want to extend a brand name associated with one line of products to another, they may take advantage of which of the following? A. The persistence of first impressions B. The halo effect C. Physical appearances D. Consumers’ tendency to jump to conclusions E. Perceptual blocking Question 15 of 64 1.0 Points Two people driving together may spot a billboard at different times. This means they have different what? A. Adaptation levels B. Differential thresholds C. Just noticeable differences D. Absolute thresholds E. Sensory adaptations Question 16 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following is the process of dividing a market into subsets of consumers with common needs or characteristics? A. Product positioning B. Market stewardship C. Market targeting D. Ethical marketing E. Market segmentation Question 17 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following is any price that a consumer uses as a basis for comparison in judging another price? A. Tensile B. Reference C. Objective D. Discount E. Superficial Question 18 of 64 1.0 Points The minimal difference that can be detected between two similar stimuli is called which of the following? A. Differential threshold B. Perceptual threshold C. Sensation threshold D. Sensory threshold E. Absolute threshold Question 19 of 64 1.0 Points When a consumer is anxious about choosing a product because they are worried they may select a one that will not work as well as they expect, they are perceiving which type of risk? A. Social risk B. Financial risk C. Time risk D. Functional risk E. Psychological risk Question 20 of 64 1.0 Points According to Freud’s theories, which of the following is an individual’s conscious control? A. Self-image B. Id C. Superego D. Super-id E. Ego Question 21 of 64 1.0 Points A high school student’s self image as a future biology major at college is best described as which of the following? A. Social self-image B. Expected self-image C. Ideal social self-image D. Extended self E. Multiple self Question 22 of 64 1.0 Points A positive goal is one toward which behavior is directed, and is often referred to as which of the following? A. Inclining object B. Interactive object C. Avoidance object D. Autonomous object E. Approach object Question 23 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following refers to the degree of open-mindedness that individuals display toward the unfamiliar and toward information that is contrary to their own established beliefs? A. Dogmatism B. Sensation seeking C. Novelty seeking D. Optimum level of stimulation E. Need for cognition Question 24 of 64 1.0 Points The process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world is known as which of the following? A. Understanding B. Perception C. Realization D. Observation E. Rationalization Question 25 of 64 1.0 Points Emerging digital technologies are allowing consumers to have more power than ever before. From the list below, what does this mean for them? A. They are required to buy goods and services from local vendors B. They can use “intelligent agents” to locate the best prices for products or services C. They are limited in the time of day that they are able to buy products D. They are forced to acquire used items through middlemen instead of directly from the original owner E. They are more limited in the range of products that they can purchase Question 26 of 64 1.0 Points Oftentimes consumer research respondents may be unaware of their motives or are unwilling to reveal them when asked directly. In such situations, researchers use which of the following to delve into the consumer’s unconscious or hidden motivations? A. Likert scales B. Empirical techniques C. Projective techniques D. Telephone surveys E. Quantitative techniques Question 27 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following is not one of the four tiers of a customer pyramid? A. Platinum B. Gold C. Sapphire D. Lead E. Iron Question 28 of 64 1.0 Points Jill gets good grades because her parents will punish her if she doesn’t receive at least a 3.5 GPA. What type of goal does Jill have? A. Avoidance object B. Psychological object C. Approach object D. Physical object E. Positive object Question 29 of 64 1.0 Points What is another term for psychographic characteristics? A. Lifestyles B. Age C. Benefits sought D. Use-situation factors E. Use-related factors Question 30 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following is composed of inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment? A. Status B. Role C. Personality D. Self-image E. Individuality Question 31 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following is a strategy of targeting several segments using individual marketing mixes? A. Consumption-specific B. Differentiated marketing C. Countersegmentation D. Microtargeting E. Concentrated marketing Question 32 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following are examples of consumer-rooted features? A. Usage rate, level of involvement and psychographics B. Education, usage situation, and social class C. Personality traits, lifestyles, and family life cycle D. Demographics, gender, and benefits wanted E. Level of involvement, awareness of product alternatives, and benefits wanted Question 33 of 64 1.0 Points The adoption of digital technologies has introduced drastic changes into the business environment, including which of the following? A. Marketers can offer more products and services than ever before. B. Consumers face more barriers to accessing information. C. Customers are forced to deal with distribution outlets and middlemen in order to obtain goods. D. Market research has become significantly more difficult. E. The exchange between marketers and customers is less interactive than in the past. Question 34 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following represents the process and tools used to study consumer behavior? A. Consumer research B. Market targeting C. Positioning D. Market segmentation E. The marketing mix Question 35 of 64 1.0 Points To respond to consumers’ growing interest in products and services that were more unique and would better satisfy their individual or specific needs and preferences, companies adopted which orientation? A. Product B. Marketing C. Societal D. Technology E. Production Question 36 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following is a perceptual organization principle that states individuals tend to organize stimuli so that they form a unified picture or impression? A. Stereotyping B. Figure and ground C. Grouping D. Closure E. Selective exposure Question 37 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following tiers of a customer pyramid includes heavy users who are not price sensitive and are willing to try new offerings? A. Platinum B. Gold C. Lead D. Iron E. Sapphire Question 38 of 64 1.0 Points Kathy wants all of her friends to see her as the girl with the highest fashion sense and best hair. This is an expression of which of the following? A. Ideal self-image B. Actual self-image C. Social self-image D. Ideal social self-image E. Expected self-image Question 39 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following is defined as aggregating individual consumers into relatively small groups, based on data available about them from many different databases and targeting them with tailor-made messages? A. Consumption-specific B. Concentrated marketing C. Differentiated marketing D. Countersegmentation E. Microtargeting Question 40 of 64 1.0 Points When a consumer avoids purchasing a new laptop because prices keep falling and they are worried the same laptop will be cheaper in six months, they are perceiving which type of risk? A. Functional risk B. Time risk C. Social risk D. Financial risk E. Psychological risk Question 41 of 64 1.0 Points Consumers need to protect themselves from being bombarded with stimuli by simply tuning out such stimuli from their conscious awareness. This is known as what? A. Selective exposure B. Perceptual defense C. Selective attention D. Perceptual differentiation E. Perceptual blocking Question 42 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following is the stage of memory in which information is processed and held for just a brief period? A. Rehearsal B. Short-term store C. Long-term store D. Sensory store E. Recall \Question 43 of 64 1.0 Points Age, gender, and education are bases of which of the following types of segmentation? A. Geographic segmentation B. Sociocultural segmentation C. Benefit segmentation D. Demographic segmentation E. Psychological segmentation Question 44 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following is defined as consumers attributing various descriptive personality-like traits or characteristics to different brands? A. Brand personality B. Consumer dogmatism C. Consumer need for cognition D. Consumer innovation E. Sensation seeking Question 45 of 64 1.0 Points Concerning the arousal of human motives, which school believes that all behavior is directed at goal achievement? A. Behaviorist B. Market-driven C. Cognitive D. Emotional E. Analytical Question 46 of 64 1.0 Points Julia gets good grades because she likes the sense of accomplishment she feels when she gets a straight-A report card. What type of goal does Julia have? A. Approach object B. Negative object C. Psychological object D. Avoidance object E. Defensive object Question 47 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following is a perceptual organization principle that states an image is more clearly perceived in contrast to a background? A. Closure B. Stereotyping C. Selective exposure D. Grouping E. Figure and ground Question 48 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following describes an individual’s perception of the performance of a product or service in relation to one’s expectations? A. Market targeting B. Customer satisfaction C. Product promotion D. Product placement E. Market segmentation Question 49 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following is defined as the sought-after results of motivated behavior? A. Goals B. Behaviors C. Targets D. Rewards E. Motivations Question 50 of 64 1.0 Points Trends in the markets, such as shifts in age, gender, and income distribution, are often detected through which type of information? A. Sociocultural B. Psychological C. Physiological D. Use-related E. Demographic \uestion 51 of 64 1.0 Points When a consumer is worried about choosing a product that others will laugh at, they are perceiving which type of risk? A. Time risk B. Social risk C. Psychological risk D. Functional risk E. Financial risk Question 52 of 64 1.0 Points When a consumer is worried that the time and effort spent in product search may be wasted if the product does not perform as expected, they are perceiving which type of risk? A. Social risk B. Functional risk C. Financial risk D. Time risk E. Psychological risk Question 53 of 64 1.0 Points Which route to persuasion is most effective for high-involvement purchases? A. Short-term stores B. Massed learning C. Distributed learning D. Central E. Peripheral Question 54 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following types of goals are defined as concerning the specifically branded products and services that consumers select for goal fulfillment? A. General goals B. Product-specific goals C. Generic goals D. Subjective goals E. Objective goals Question 55 of 64 1.0 Points What is defined as the ratio between the customer’s perceived benefits and the resources used to obtain those benefits? A. Customer value B. Consumer marketing C. Consumer decision making D. Customer satisfaction E. Customer relationship management Question 56 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following refers to the degree of personal relevance that a product or purchase holds for a customer? A. Encoding B. Shaping C. Consumer involvement D. Hemispheral lateralization E. Information overload Question 57 of 64 1.0 Points Which of the following are examples of consumption-specific behaviors? A. Demographics, gender, and benefits wanted B. Level of involvement, awareness of product alternatives, and benefits wanted C. Usage rate and usage situation D. Education, usage situation, and social class E. Personality traits, lifestyles, and family life cycle Question 58 of 64 1.0 Points When a consumer is worried about choosing a product that will ultimately bruise their ego, they are perceiving which type of risk? A. Psychological risk B. Time risk C. Social risk D. Functional risk E. Financial risk Question 59 of 64 1.0 Points The amount of information available for delivery from short-term storage to long-term storage depends on the amount of what? A. Encoding B. Recall C. Shaping D. Retrieval E. Rehearsal Question 60 of 64 1.0 Points What does the societal marketing concept call on marketers to do? A. Lobby for government regulation of their industries B. Fulfill the needs of the target audience in ways that improve society as a whole, while fulfilling the objectives of the organization C. Minimize production costs in order to offer the product at the lowest price possible D. Aggressively market all products to all segments of society E. Track customer preferences via the Internet to improve customer research databases Part 2 of 2 – Essay Questions 40.0 Points Fully answer each question. The length of your answer will depend on the instructions contained in the question (e.g. list 5, list 3, etc.). Question 61 of 64 10.0 Points List and describe three defense mechanisms. Give examples for each. Question 62 of 64 10.0 Points List and describe the four elements of learning. Give examples for each. Question 63 of 64 10.0 Points Describe three ways digital technologies have impacted marketers and/or consumers. Question 64 of 64 10.0 Points List and describe three ways of manipulating stimuli to enhance consumers’ attention. Give examples for each.

part 1 of 2 – Multiple Choice 60.0 Points

There is only one correct answer for each question. Be sure to choose the right one!

Question 1 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following refers to developing a distinct image for a

product in the mind of the consumer?

 

A. Targeting

 

B. Placement

 

C. Segmenting

 

D. Positioning

 

E. Promotion

 

 

Question 2 of 64 1.0 Points

Motivation is produced by a state of tension, which exists as the result

of what?

 

A. Satisfied desires

 

B. Unrealized desires

 

C. Unfulfilled needs

 

D. Environmental forces

 

E. Peer pressure

 

 

 

Question 3 of 64 1.0 Points

The likelihood of a consumer accepting or rejecting foreign-made

products is known as which of the following?

 

A. Consumer understanding

 

B. Consumer innovativeness

 

C. Consumer ethnocentrism

 

D. Consumer perception

 

E. Consumer materialism

Question 4 of 64 1.0 Points

How receptive a person is to new experiences is known as which of the following?

 

A. Consumer innovativeness

 

B. Consumer perception

 

C. Consumer understanding

 

D. Consumer ethnocentrism

 

E. Consumer materialism

Question 5 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following is the process through which individuals learn

behavior by observing the behavior of others and the consequences of

such behavior?

 

A. Massed learning

 

B. Positioning

 

C. Passive learning

 

D. Modeling

 

E. Distributed learning

Question 6 of 64 1.0 Points

In the study of personality, three distinct properties are of central

importance. What are these?

 

A. Personality reflects individual differences, personality is consistent

and enduring, and personality does not change

 

B. Personality reflects individual differences, personality is inconsistent

and fleeting, and personality can change

 

C. Personality reflects similarities between individuals, personality is

consistent and enduring, and personality does not change

 

D. Personality reflects individual differences, personality is consistent

and enduring, and personality can change

 

E. Personality reflects similarities between individuals, personality is

consistent and enduring, and personality can change

Question 7 of 64 1.0 Points

Concerning the arousal of human motives, which school sees behavior as a

response to a stimulus, and elements of conscious thought are ignored?

 

A. Behaviorist

 

B. Cognitive

 

C. Analytical

 

D. Market-driven

 

E. Emotional

Question 8 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following types of goals are defined as general classes or

categories of goals that consumers see as a means to fulfill their needs?

 

A. Objective goals

 

B. Subjective goals

 

C. General goals

 

D. Product-oriented goals

 

E. Generic goals

Question 9 of 64 1.0 Points

Needs that we learn in response to our culture or environment are which

type of needs?

 

A. Acculturated

 

B. Primary

 

C. Biogenic

 

D. Innate

 

E. Acquired

Question 10 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following is defined as “any distinguishing,

relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another”?

 

A. Characteristic

 

B. Individualism

 

C. Creativity

 

D. Personality

 

E. Trait

Question 11 of 64 1.0 Points

Reinforcement performed before the desired consumer behavior actually

takes place is called what?

 

A. Positioning

 

B. Licensing

 

C. Passive learning

 

D. Shaping

 

E. Preemptive reward

Question 12 of 64 1.0 Points

According to the trio-of-basic-needs theory, the trio of basic needs

includes what?

 

A. Environment, affection, self-actualization

 

B. Achievement, affection, power

 

C. Power, affiliation, and achievement

 

D. Safety, physical satisfaction, social belonging

 

E. Prestige, affiliation, and achievement

Question 13 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following increases the strength of the association between

a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus and slows the

process of forgetting?

 

A. Stimulus generalization

 

B. Modeling

 

C. Repetition

 

D. Sensory stores

 

E. Shaping

Question 14 of 64 1.0 Points

When marketers want to extend a brand name associated with one line of

products to another, they may take advantage of which of the following?

 

A. The persistence of first impressions

 

B. The halo effect

 

C. Physical appearances

 

D. Consumers’ tendency to jump to conclusions

 

E. Perceptual blocking

Question 15 of 64 1.0 Points

Two people driving together may spot a billboard at different times.

This means they have different what?

 

A. Adaptation levels

 

B. Differential thresholds

 

C. Just noticeable differences

 

D. Absolute thresholds

 

E. Sensory adaptations

Question 16 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following is the process of dividing a market into subsets

of consumers with common needs or characteristics?

 

A. Product positioning

 

B. Market stewardship

 

C. Market targeting

 

D. Ethical marketing

 

E. Market segmentation

Question 17 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following is any price that a consumer uses as a basis for

comparison in judging another price?

 

A. Tensile

 

B. Reference

 

C. Objective

 

D. Discount

 

E. Superficial

Question 18 of 64 1.0 Points

The minimal difference that can be detected between two similar stimuli

is called which of the following?

 

A. Differential threshold

 

B. Perceptual threshold

 

C. Sensation threshold

 

D. Sensory threshold

 

E. Absolute threshold

Question 19 of 64 1.0 Points

When a consumer is anxious about choosing a product because they are

worried they may select a one that will not work as well as they expect,

they are perceiving which type of risk?

 

A. Social risk

 

B. Financial risk

 

C. Time risk

 

D. Functional risk

 

E. Psychological risk

Question 20 of 64 1.0 Points

According to Freud’s theories, which of the following is an individual’s

conscious control?

 

A. Self-image

 

B. Id

 

C. Superego

 

D. Super-id

 

E. Ego

Question 21 of 64 1.0 Points

A high school student’s self image as a future biology major at college

is best described as which of the following?

 

A. Social self-image

 

B. Expected self-image

 

C. Ideal social self-image

 

D. Extended self

 

E. Multiple self

Question 22 of 64 1.0 Points

A positive goal is one toward which behavior is directed, and is often

referred to as which of the following?

 

A. Inclining object

 

B. Interactive object

 

C. Avoidance object

 

D. Autonomous object

 

E. Approach object

Question 23 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following refers to the degree of open-mindedness that

individuals display toward the unfamiliar and toward information that is

contrary to their own established beliefs?

 

A. Dogmatism

 

B. Sensation seeking

 

C. Novelty seeking

 

D. Optimum level of stimulation

 

E. Need for cognition

Question 24 of 64 1.0 Points

The process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets

stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world is known as

which of the following?

 

A. Understanding

 

B. Perception

 

C. Realization

 

D. Observation

 

E. Rationalization

Question 25 of 64 1.0 Points

Emerging digital technologies are allowing consumers to have more power

than ever before. From the list below, what does this mean for them?

 

A. They are required to buy goods and services from local vendors

 

B. They can use “intelligent agents” to locate the best prices

for products or services

 

C. They are limited in the time of day that they are able to buy products

 

D. They are forced to acquire used items through middlemen instead of

directly from the original owner

 

E. They are more limited in the range of products that they can purchase

Question 26 of 64 1.0 Points

Oftentimes consumer research respondents may be unaware of their motives

or are unwilling to reveal them when asked directly. In such

situations, researchers use which of the following to delve into the

consumer’s unconscious or hidden motivations?

 

A. Likert scales

 

B. Empirical techniques

 

C. Projective techniques

 

D. Telephone surveys

 

E. Quantitative techniques

Question 27 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following is not one of the four tiers of a customer pyramid?

 

A. Platinum

 

B. Gold

 

C. Sapphire

 

D. Lead

 

E. Iron

Question 28 of 64 1.0 Points

Jill gets good grades because her parents will punish her if she doesn’t

receive at least a 3.5 GPA. What type of goal does Jill have?

 

A. Avoidance object

 

B. Psychological object

 

C. Approach object

 

D. Physical object

 

E. Positive object

Question 29 of 64 1.0 Points

What is another term for psychographic characteristics?

 

A. Lifestyles

 

B. Age

 

C. Benefits sought

 

D. Use-situation factors

 

E. Use-related factors

Question 30 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following is composed of inner psychological

characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to

his or her environment?

 

A. Status

 

B. Role

 

C. Personality

 

D. Self-image

 

E. Individuality

Question 31 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following is a strategy of targeting several segments using

individual marketing mixes?

 

A. Consumption-specific

 

B. Differentiated marketing

 

C. Countersegmentation

 

D. Microtargeting

 

E. Concentrated marketing

Question 32 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following are examples of consumer-rooted features?

 

A. Usage rate, level of involvement and psychographics

 

B. Education, usage situation, and social class

 

C. Personality traits, lifestyles, and family life cycle

 

D. Demographics, gender, and benefits wanted

 

E. Level of involvement, awareness of product alternatives, and benefits wanted

Question 33 of 64 1.0 Points

The adoption of digital technologies has introduced drastic changes into

the business environment, including which of the following?

 

A. Marketers can offer more products and services than ever before.

 

B. Consumers face more barriers to accessing information.

 

C. Customers are forced to deal with distribution outlets and middlemen in

order to obtain goods.

 

D. Market research has become significantly more difficult.

 

E. The exchange between marketers and customers is less interactive than in

the past.

Question 34 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following represents the process and tools used to study

consumer behavior?

 

A. Consumer research

 

B. Market targeting

 

C. Positioning

 

D. Market segmentation

 

E. The marketing mix

Question 35 of 64 1.0 Points

To respond to consumers’ growing interest in products and services that

were more unique and would better satisfy their individual or specific

needs and preferences, companies adopted which orientation?

 

A. Product

 

B. Marketing

 

C. Societal

 

D. Technology

 

E. Production

Question 36 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following is a perceptual organization principle that

states individuals tend to organize stimuli so that they form a unified

picture or impression?

 

A. Stereotyping

 

B. Figure and ground

 

C. Grouping

 

D. Closure

 

E. Selective exposure

Question 37 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following tiers of a customer pyramid includes heavy users

who are not price sensitive and are willing to try new offerings?

 

A. Platinum

 

B. Gold

 

C. Lead

 

D. Iron

 

E. Sapphire

Question 38 of 64 1.0 Points

Kathy wants all of her friends to see her as the girl with the highest

fashion sense and best hair. This is an expression of which of the following?

 

A. Ideal self-image

 

B. Actual self-image

 

C. Social self-image

 

D. Ideal social self-image

 

E. Expected self-image

Question 39 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following is defined as aggregating individual consumers

into relatively small groups, based on data available about them from

many different databases and targeting them with tailor-made messages?

 

A. Consumption-specific

 

B. Concentrated marketing

 

C. Differentiated marketing

 

D. Countersegmentation

 

E. Microtargeting

Question 40 of 64 1.0 Points

When a consumer avoids purchasing a new laptop because prices keep

falling and they are worried the same laptop will be cheaper in six

months, they are perceiving which type of risk?

 

A. Functional risk

 

B. Time risk

 

C. Social risk

 

D. Financial risk

 

E. Psychological risk

Question 41 of 64 1.0 Points

Consumers need to protect themselves from being bombarded with stimuli

by simply tuning out such stimuli from their conscious awareness. This

is known as what?

 

A. Selective exposure

 

B. Perceptual defense

 

C. Selective attention

 

D. Perceptual differentiation

 

E. Perceptual blocking

Question 42 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following is the stage of memory in which information is

processed and held for just a brief period?

 

A. Rehearsal

 

B. Short-term store

 

C. Long-term store

 

D. Sensory store

 

E. Recall

\Question 43 of 64 1.0 Points

Age, gender, and education are bases of which of the following types of segmentation?

 

A. Geographic segmentation

 

B. Sociocultural segmentation

 

C. Benefit segmentation

 

D. Demographic segmentation

 

E. Psychological segmentation

Question 44 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following is defined as consumers attributing various

descriptive personality-like traits or characteristics to different brands?

 

A. Brand personality

 

B. Consumer dogmatism

 

C. Consumer need for cognition

 

D. Consumer innovation

 

E. Sensation seeking

Question 45 of 64 1.0 Points

Concerning the arousal of human motives, which school believes that all

behavior is directed at goal achievement?

 

A. Behaviorist

 

B. Market-driven

 

C. Cognitive

 

D. Emotional

 

E. Analytical

Question 46 of 64 1.0 Points

Julia gets good grades because she likes the sense of accomplishment she

feels when she gets a straight-A report card. What type of goal does

Julia have?

 

A. Approach object

 

B. Negative object

 

C. Psychological object

 

D. Avoidance object

 

E. Defensive object

Question 47 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following is a perceptual organization principle that

states an image is more clearly perceived in contrast to a background?

 

A. Closure

 

B. Stereotyping

 

C. Selective exposure

 

D. Grouping

 

E. Figure and ground

Question 48 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following describes an individual’s perception of the

performance of a product or service in relation to one’s expectations?

 

A. Market targeting

 

B. Customer satisfaction

 

C. Product promotion

 

D. Product placement

 

E. Market segmentation

Question 49 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following is defined as the sought-after results of

motivated behavior?

 

A. Goals

 

B. Behaviors

 

C. Targets

 

D. Rewards

 

E. Motivations

Question 50 of 64 1.0 Points

Trends in the markets, such as shifts in age, gender, and income

distribution, are often detected through which type of information?

 

A. Sociocultural

 

B. Psychological

 

C. Physiological

 

D. Use-related

 

E. Demographic

\uestion 51 of 64 1.0 Points

When a consumer is worried about choosing a product that others will

laugh at, they are perceiving which type of risk?

 

A. Time risk

 

B. Social risk

 

C. Psychological risk

 

D. Functional risk

 

E. Financial risk

Question 52 of 64 1.0 Points

When a consumer is worried that the time and effort spent in product

search may be wasted if the product does not perform as expected, they

are perceiving which type of risk?

 

A. Social risk

 

B. Functional risk

 

C. Financial risk

 

D. Time risk

 

E. Psychological risk

Question 53 of 64 1.0 Points

Which route to persuasion is most effective for high-involvement purchases?

 

A. Short-term stores

 

B. Massed learning

 

C. Distributed learning

 

D. Central

 

E. Peripheral

Question 54 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following types of goals are defined as concerning the

specifically branded products and services that consumers select for

goal fulfillment?

 

A. General goals

 

B. Product-specific goals

 

C. Generic goals

 

D. Subjective goals

 

E. Objective goals

Question 55 of 64 1.0 Points

What is defined as the ratio between the customer’s perceived benefits

and the resources used to obtain those benefits?

 

A. Customer value

 

B. Consumer marketing

 

C. Consumer decision making

 

D. Customer satisfaction

 

E. Customer relationship management

Question 56 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following refers to the degree of personal relevance that a

product or purchase holds for a customer?

 

A. Encoding

 

B. Shaping

 

C. Consumer involvement

 

D. Hemispheral lateralization

 

E. Information overload

Question 57 of 64 1.0 Points

Which of the following are examples of consumption-specific behaviors?

 

A. Demographics, gender, and benefits wanted

 

B. Level of involvement, awareness of product alternatives, and benefits wanted

 

C. Usage rate and usage situation

 

D. Education, usage situation, and social class

 

E. Personality traits, lifestyles, and family life cycle

Question 58 of 64 1.0 Points

When a consumer is worried about choosing a product that will ultimately

bruise their ego, they are perceiving which type of risk?

 

A. Psychological risk

 

B. Time risk

 

C. Social risk

 

D. Functional risk

 

E. Financial risk

Question 59 of 64 1.0 Points

The amount of information available for delivery from short-term storage

to long-term storage depends on the amount of what?

 

A. Encoding

 

B. Recall

 

C. Shaping

 

D. Retrieval

 

E. Rehearsal

Question 60 of 64 1.0 Points

What does the societal marketing concept call on marketers to do?

 

A. Lobby for government regulation of their industries

 

B. Fulfill the needs of the target audience in ways that improve society as

a whole, while fulfilling the objectives of the organization

 

C. Minimize production costs in order to offer the product at the lowest

price possible

 

D. Aggressively market all products to all segments of society

 

E. Track customer preferences via the Internet to improve customer research databases

Part 2 of 2 – Essay Questions 40.0 Points

Fully answer each question. The length of your answer will depend on the instructions contained in the question (e.g. list 5, list 3, etc.).

Question 61 of 64 10.0 Points

List and describe three defense mechanisms. Give examples for each.

Question 62 of 64 10.0 Points

List and describe the four elements of learning. Give examples for each.

Question 63 of 64 10.0 Points

Describe three ways digital technologies have impacted marketers and/or consumers.

Question 64 of 64 10.0 Points

List and describe three ways of manipulating stimuli to enhance consumers’

attention. Give examples for each.

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