In one test commonly used to study medial-temporal-lobe amnesia in macaque monkeys,
A.the sample appears over the central food well during the test phase of each trial.
B.food is available under both objects during the test phase of each trial.
C.food is available under the nonsample object during the test phase of each trial.
D.no food is available during the sample-presentation phase of each trial.
Which of the following tasks is commonly used to study the spatial abilities of rats?
A.Morris water maze
D.both A and B
Because H.M.’s surgery seemed to disrupt only those retrograde memories acquired shortly before his surgery, it was once widely believed that the hippocampus
A.stores most long-term memories.
B.stores all long-term memories.
C.temporarily stores memories before they are transferred to a more permanent storage site.
D.stores spatial memories.
The hypothetical neural mechanism in humans that continuously assesses patterns of events and tries to make sense of them is termed the
C.right prefrontal lobe.
D.left prefrontal lobe.
The strongest evidence for the linguistic theory of cerebral asymmetry comes from the study of
A.deaf people who use American Sign Language and subsequently suffer unilateral brain damage.
B.split-brain deaf people.
C.deaf monkeys with unilateral brain damage.
D.split-brain people with right-hemisphere damage.
According to the Wernicke-Geschwind model, signals are carried from Wernicke’s area to Broca’s area via the left
According to the text, which theory of sleep does the best job of explaining why there are such large differences in the amount of time that the members of various mammalian species spend sleeping?
The performance of which of the following tasks is most likely to be disrupted by sleep deprivation?
C.watching a radar screen for occasional unpredictable blips
D.solving a series of complex geometric problems
Sleep deprivation lasting several days usually produces
Clock is a circadian gene; it was discovered in
Because REM sleep is similar to wakefulness in several respects, it makes sense that REM sleep circuits are controlled by a structure involved in maintaining wakefulness: the
C.reticular activating system.
In view of the evidence, the widespread practice of taking melatonin to promote sleep is
A.dangerous and should be stopped.
B.definitely a waste of time.
C.likely to be of no more than minor benefit.
D.almost certain to have major sleep benefits in most people.
Which of the following causes epilepsy?
D.all of the above
Which of the following is common in children and often ceases in puberty?
C.temporal lobe epilepsy
D.simple partial epilepsy
Epidemiology is the study of
C.the spread of neurological disorders.
D.the various factors that influence the distribution of a disease in the general population.
Most patients with gastric ulcers display signs of H. pylori infection, however, to put this observation in perspective, it is important to understand that
A.yogurt can reduce the infection.
B.yogurt can increase the infection.
C.probiotic yogurt can cure ulcers.
D.many healthy people are similarly infected.
Stress disrupts the performance of
A.tasks mediated by the hippocampus.
B.most memory tasks.
C.almost all avoidance tasks.
D.most cognitive tasks.
Studies of electrical intracranial self-stimulation have influenced the development of biopsychological theories of addiction by indicating that
A.the rewarding effects of drugs play a major role in addiction.
B.there are particular areas of the brain that mediate the experience of pleasure.
C.drug withdrawal and drug pleasure are opposite processes.
D.there are particular areas of the brain that mediate pleasure from drugs.
In humans, the following trait predicts individuals who will initially begin taking a drug:
The early physical-dependence theories of drug addiction were discredited by the observation that
A.detoxified addicts almost always return to their drug-taking habits.
B.if addicts withdraw over a long period, withdrawal symptoms are more severe.
C.drug addicts who are kept from using drugs for a year or more almost always permanently kick the habit.
D.both A and B
Discuss two sources of the variability problem. Provide examples for each.
For this question please have 200 words