A claim of fact is a statement that something exists, did exist or will exist. Where a claim of fact asserts this is the way it is, a problem-based claim asserts this is the way it ought to be. A claim of definition helps the reader understand in which category a person, thing, act, or event belongs or does not belong. A claim of evaluation asserts that something is good or bad. A claim of cause looks at the causes or effects (consequences) of something. You learned in the last lesson that a warrant is an underlying assumption or inference that the writer takes for granted. Backing may take the same form as support for a claim (facts, statistics, logic, expert testimony and so on). Qualifiers are words or phrases that writers use to set limits on their assertions to prevent them from being deemed as applying universally. Qualifiers are probable rather than absolute. Rebuttals remind you to look at your argument as a skeptic. Look for the holes that might be poked in your argument. Look for opportunities to attack your claim and to challenge its support, warrants, and backing.