Cultural Norms: Fair & Lovely and AdvertisingFair & Lovely, a branded product of Hindustan Unilever Ltd (HUL – formerly called Hindustan Lever), is toutedas a cosmetic that lightens skin colour. On its website (www.hul.co.in) the company called its product, ‘the miracleworker’, which is ‘proven to deliver one to three shades of change’.While tanning is the rage in Western countries,skin lightening treatments are popular in Asia.According to industry sources, the top-selling skin lightening cream in India is Fair & Lovely from HindustanUnilever, followed by CavinKare’s Fairever brands. HUL’s Fair & Lovely brand was the undisputed monarch ofthe market with a 90 per cent share until CavinKare Ltd (CKL) launched Fairever. In just two years, the Faireverbrand gained an impressive 15 per cent market share. HUL’s shareof market for the Fair & Lovely line generatesabout $60 million annually. The product sells for about 23 rupees ($0.29) for a 25-gram tube of cream.The rapid growth of CavinKare’s Fairever (www.cavinkare.com) brand prompted HUL to increase its advertisingeffort and to launch a series of ads depicting a ‘fairer girl gets the boy’ theme. One advertisement featured afinancially strapped father lamenting his fate, saying, ‘If only I had ason’, while his dark-skinned daughter lookson, helpless and demoralised because she can’t bear the financial responsibility of her family. Fast-forward andPlain Jane has been transformed into a gorgeous light-skinned woman throughthe use of a ‘fairness cream’, Fair &Lovely. Now clad in a miniskirt, the woman is a successful flight attendant andcan take her father to dine at a fivestarhotel. She’s happy and so is her father.In another ad two attractive young women are sitting in a bedroom; one has a boyfriend and, consequently, ishappy. The darker-skinned woman, lacking a boyfriend, is not happy. Her friend’s advice? Use a bar of soap towash away the dark skin that’s keeping men from flocking to her.HUL’s series of ads provoked CavinKare Ltd to counter with an ad that takes a dig at HUL’s Fair & Lovely ad.CavinKare’s ad has a father-daughter duo as the protagonists, with the father shown encouraging the daughter tobe an achiever irrespective of her complexion. CavinKare maintained that the objective of its new commercial isnot to take a dig at Fair & Lovely but to ‘reinforce Fairever’spositioning’.‘We have noticed attempts by Fair & Lovely to blur our positioning by changing its communication platform from“wanting to get married” to “achievement”, the principal Fairever theme. Since we don’t have the spending powerto match HUL, a tactical way for us to respond is to reinforce our brand positioning and the commercial will beaired until the company’s “objective” is achieved,’ a CavinKare official said.Skin colour is a powerful theme in India as well as much of Asia where a lighter colour represents a higher status.While Americans and Europeans flock to tanning salons, many across Asia seek ways to have ‘fair’ complexions.Culturally, fair skin is associated with positive values that relate to class and beauty. One Indian lady commentedthat when she was growing up, her mother forbade her to go outdoors. She was not trying to keep her daughter outof trouble but was trying to keep her skin from getting dark. Brahmins, the priestly caste at the top of the socialhierarchy, are considered fair because they traditionally stayed inside, poring over books. The undercaste at thebottom of the ladder are regarded as the darkest people because they customarily worked in the searing sun.Ancient Hindu scriptures and modern poetry eulogise women endowed with skin made out of white marble.Skin colour is closely identified with caste and is laden with symbolism. Pursue any of the ‘grooms and brideswanted’ ads in newspapers or on the web that families use to arrange suitable alliances and you will see that mostpotential grooms and their families are looking for ‘fair’ brides; some are progressive enough to invite responsesfrom women belonging to a different caste. These ads, hundreds of which appear in India’s daily newspapers,reflect attempts to solicit individuals with the appropriate religion, caste, regional ancestry, professional andeducational qualifications, and, frequently, skin colour. Even in the growing numbers of ads that announce ‘casteno bar’, the adjective ‘fair’ regularly precedes professional qualifications.Bollywood (India’s Hollywood) glorifies conventions on beauty by always casting a fair-skinned actress in therole of heroine, surrounded by darker extras. Women want to use whiteners because it is ‘aspirational’, like losingweight. Even the gods supposedly lament their dark complexion – Krishna sings plaintively, ‘Radha kyoon gori,main kyoon kala?’ (Why is Radha so fair when I’m dark?) – a skin deficient in melanin (the pigment thatdetermines the skin’s brown colour) is an ancient predilection. More than 3500 years ago, Charaka, the famoussage, wrote about herbs that could help make the skin fair.Indian dermatologists maintain that fairness products cannot truly work as they only reach the upper layers of theskin and so do not affect melanin production. Nevertheless, ‘hope springs eternal’ and for some Fair & Lovely is a‘miracle worker’. ‘The last time I went to my parents’ home, I got complements on my fair skin from everyone,’one user gushes. But for others, there is only disappointment. One 26-year-old working woman has been a regularuser for the past eight years but to no avail. ‘I should have turned into Snow White by now but my skin is still thesame wheatish colour.’The number of Indians of the opinion that lighter skin is more beautiful may be shrinking. Sumit Isralni, a 22-yearold hair designer in his father’s salon, thinks things have changed in the last two years, at least in India’s mostcosmopolitan cities, Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore. Women now ‘prefer their own complexion, their natural way,’Isralni says; he prefers a more ‘Indian beauty’ himself. ‘I won’t judge my wife on how fair her complexion is.’‘Sunita Gupta, a beautician in the same salon, is more critical. ‘It’s just foolishness!’ she exclaims. The premise ofthe ads that women could not become airline attendants if they are dark-skinned was wrong, she said. ‘Nowadayspeople like black beauty.’ It is a truism that women, especially in the tropics, desire to be a shade fairer no matterwhat their skin colour. Although, unlike the approach used in India, advertisements elsewhere usually show howto use the product and how it works.AdvertisingHUL launched its television ad campaign to promote Fair & Lovely in December 2001 and withdrew it inFebruary 2003, amid severe criticism of its portrayal of women. Activists argued that one of the messages thecompany sends through its ‘air hostess’ demonstrating the preference for a son who would be able to take on thefinancial responsibility for his parents – is especially harmful in a country such as India where genderdiscrimination is rampant. Another offence is perpetuating a culture of discrimination in asociety where ‘fair’ issynonymous with ‘beautiful’. AIDWA(All India Democratic Women’s Association) lodged a complaint in Marchand April 2002 with HUL about its offensive ads but Hindustan Unilever failed to respond.The women’s association then appealed to the National Human Rights Commission alleging that the ad demeanedwomen. AIDWA objected to three things: (1) the ads were racist, (2) they were promoting son preference, and (3)they were insulting to working women. ‘The way they portrayed the young women who, after using Fair &Lovely, became attractive and therefore lands a job suggested that the main qualification for a woman to get a jobis the way she looks.’ The Human Rights Commission passed AIDWA’s complaints on to the Ministry ofInformation and Broadcasting, which said the campaign violated the Cable and Television Networks Act of 1995 –provisions in the Act state that no advertisement shall be permitted that ‘derides any race, caste, colour, creed andnationality’ and that ‘Women must not be portrayed in a manner that emphasizes passive, submissive qualities andencourages them to play a subordinate secondary role in the family and society.’ The government issued notices ofthe complaints to HUL. After a year-long campaign led by the AIDWA, Hindustan Unilever Limited discontinuedtwo of its television advertisements for Fair & Lovely fairness cold cream in March 2003.Shortly after pulling its ads off the air, and, coincidentally, on International Women’s Day, HUL launched its‘Fair & Lovely Foundation’, vowing to ‘encourage economic empowerment of women across India’ by providingresources in education and business. Millions of women ‘who, though immensely talented and capable, need aguiding hand to help them take the leap forward’. Presumably into a fairer future.HUL sponsored career fairs in over 20 cities across the country, offering counselling in as many as 110 careers. Itsupported 100 rural scholarships for women students passing their 10th grade, a professional course for aspiringbeauticians, and a three-month Home Healthcare Nursing Assistant’s course catering to young women between theages 18 and 30. According to HUL, the Fair & Lovely Academy for Home Care Nursing Assistants offers a uniquetraining opportunity for young women who possess no entry-level skills and, therefore, are not employable in thenew economy job market. The Fair & Lovely Foundation plans to serve as a catalyst for the economicempowerment of women across India. The Fair & Lovely Foundation will showcase the achievements of thesewomen not only to honour them, but also to set an example for other women to follow.A few facts about HUL taken fromwww.hul.inHindustan Unilever Limited is India’s largest Packaged Mass Consumption Goods company. We are leaders inHome and Personal Care Products and Food and Beverages including such products as Ponds and Pepsodent.We seek to ‘meet everyday needs to people everywhere – to anticipate the aspirations of our consumers andcustomers and to respond creatively and competitively with branded products and services which raise the qualityof life’. It is this purpose which inspires us to build brands. Over the past 70 years, we have introduced about 100brands.Fair & Lovely has been specially designed and proven to deliver one to three shades of change in most people.Also its sunscreen system is specially optimised for Indian skin. Indian skin unlike Caucasian skin tends to‘tan’ rather than ‘burn’ and, hence, requires a different combination of UVA & UVB sunscreens.The fairness cream is marketed in over 38 countries through HUL Exports and local Unilever companies andis the largest selling skin lightening cream in the world. The brand today offers a substantive range of productsto consumers including Fair & Lovely Fairness Reviving Lotion, Fair & Lovely Fairness Cold Cream and Fair &Lovely Fairness Soap.Some information on CavinKare takenfrom www.cavinkare.comWe shall achieve growth by ‘continuously offering unique products and services that would give customers utmostsatisfaction and thereby be a role model.’GoalIn fifteen years (2012) we will be a hundred times our current turnover.Values and beliefs of CavinKareIntegrity The company values honesty and truthfulness above everything else in all its interactions. Our thoughts,words and actions shall be the same. We shall try oututmost to fulfil promises and honour commitments.Fairness The company shall be fair in all its dealings with people inside and outside. We will follow rules, normsand procedures not only in letter but in spirit as well; we will show common decency in all our dealings withpeople; we will not exploit undue advantages; we will respect the rights of others.Excellence The company values highly all efforts that lead to high standards in everyday work and results. Weshall attempt to be the best-in-class in anything we choose to work on. We shall encourage any individual orcollective effort in promoting excellence.Innovation The company values innovative thinking, innovative approaches and innovative solutions in ourregular work life. We will always look for better ways of doing things; we will seek new ideas to solve problems;we will experiment with new concepts, ideas and solutions.Openness The company believes that openness to new ideas, thoughts and opinions makes relationshipsstronger and productive, we shall listen to others; we shall openly discuss among colleagues all that isappropriate; we shall welcome ideas from everywhere.Trust The company believes that trust is an important ingredient for effective functioning within the organisationand with the outside world. While we shall protect our legitimate business interests, we would also approachthe people, issues and associations with straightforwardness, optimism and positive outlook.Stretch The company believes that people have infinite potential. We have an extraordinary capability to exertand extend the limits of the possible. We shall aim for stretch goals, ambitious targets and ever-recedinghorizons.Questions1. Is it ethical to sell a product that is, at best, only mildly effective? Discuss.2. Is it ethical to exploit cultural norms and values to promote a product? Discuss.3. Is the advertising of Fair & Lovely demeaning to women or is it portraying a product not too dissimilartocosmetics in general?4. Will HUL’s Fair & Lovely Foundation counter charges made by AIDWA? Discuss.5. In light of AIDWA’s charges, how would you suggest Fair & Lovely promote its product? Discuss. Wouldyour response be different if Fairever continues to use ‘fairness’ as a theme of its promotion? Discuss.6. Propose a promotion/marketing programme that will counter all the arguments and charges against Fair&Lovely and be an effective programme.7. Based on CavinKare’s statement of values and beliefs, how would you evaluate its advertising/marketingprogrammes?