1) What research method describes the structures of experience (AKA meanings) as they present themselves to consciousness, without recourse to theory, deduction, or assumptions from other disciplines?
A. Case study
C. Grounded theory
2) The logic of causal inference requires an experimental basis where two or more groups are compared on one or more variables. In simplest form, an “experiment” also requires…?
A. Random selection of subjects from a population
B. Elimination of subjects that seem resistant to treatments
C. Random assignment of subjects to treatment and control groups
D. Matching of subjects on key characteristics
3) The issue of “generalizability” is an aspect of…?
A. Internal validity
B. Field experience
C. Research realism
D. External validity
4) A qualitative method where data is collected and the themes and concepts based on data analysis emerge during the study…?
D. Grounded Theory
5) A Nomethetic approach to research focuses upon the study of…?
6) In the context of qualitative research design, the primary instrumentation to be used is…?
B. A quality research matrix
C. Observation protocols
D. The researcher
7) Intrinsic changes in subjects that take place over time and are not related to treatment effects is known as…?
B. Non-treatment effects
D. Experimental variance
8) Which of the following analysis methods cannot be applied to experimental research?
B. Regression analysis
C. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
D. None of the above
9) An ethical necessity in conducting research with human subjects is to obtain…?
A. An indemnification from litigation
B. Informed consent from participants
C. Access to sufficient data to complete the study
D. Applicable evidence that the study was not harmful
10) A quantitative design that involves multiple independent variables and combines all levels of the independent variables with all other levels is know as…?
A. Split design
C. Factorial Designs
D. Covariate Design
11) A quasi-experimental research design that looks much like an experiment but lacks randomized assignment of subjects to treatment conditions is known as…?
A. Interrupted Time Series Design
B. Repeated Measure Design
C. Nonequivalent Control Group Design
D. Ad Hoc Design
12) An idiographic method of research focuses upon…?
A. An individual
B. A specific problem
C. A particular contextual setting
D. A particular group
13) Anything that can be identified as varying in assigned value can be a …?
14) One reason given for Mixed Method Research is to bring richness and detail to the study exploring specific features of each method. This purpose is referred to as…?
15) Positivist and Post-Positivist perspectives on research adhere to the perspective of Philosopher of Science Karl Popper, who held that all stated research hypotheses must be…?
A. Stated in a manner that excludes the self as a means of reducing bias
B. Simply stated to avoid misinterpretation
C. Self-contained in relationship to the complexity of the study
D. Falsifiable based upon empirical evidence obtained through scientific procedures
16) A design method in quantitative research that is used to control for order of effects without having all possible orders is called…?
A. Analysis of Covariance
B. Chi Square
C. Latin Squares
D. Repeated measures
17) Where “R” = Random Assignment Subjects to Treatment conditions; “NR” = No Random Assignment; “X” = Treatment and “O” = Observation, which of the following allows for causal inferences to be made regarding the effect of treatment?
R X O
R _ O
R X O
NR X O
NR _ O
NR O X O
18) Time focus of a research design can involve assessing a condition and looking backwards to subject history, or assessing a condition and looking forward to the effects the come manifest over time. This is known as…?
A. Inward, Outward
B. Retrospective, Prospective
C. Artifactual, Speculative
D. Focused, Unfocused
19) To be applicable to meaningful research, a “research question” must be…?
A. Purposeful in direction of what is being asked
B. Positive in formulation
C. Answerable within the scope of chosen research practices, instrumentation and procedures
D. Legitimate within the scope of existing societal values toward research
20) Three common and well known methods of data collection for Qualitative Research Designs are…?
A. Surveys, psychometric tests, rating scales
B. Interactive interviewing, written descriptions by participants, observation
C. Video recording, computer files, Internet
D. Spatial recording, artifact review, non-specific archeology
21) Name a qualitative research design that focuses in-depth upon a single case example of the phenomena being studied that can be an individual person, an event, a group, or an institution.
A. Case study
C. Ethnographic analysis
D. Narrative analysis
22) A Cross-sectional method studies an issue of interest at…?
B. Several points in time
C. A single point in time
D. Over a duration of time
23) Qualitative research with human subjects typically involves __________ and __________ without specific forms of scaled measurement.
A. artifacts, traces
B. tests, critical items
C. interviews, observations
D. instruments, interests
24) A single group pretest – posttest research design cannot infer causality of relationship because…?
A. Too few subjects are involved in the research process under this design
B. There are no means of eliminating alternative explanations for the observed changes in contrast to a treatment effect because there is no random assignments to treatment and control groups
C. There are too few groups to conduct an Analysis of Variance
D. Correlation does not equal causation
25) A cross between a cross sectional design and longitudinal design is known as…?
A. A single case design
B. A reversal design
C. A sequential design
D. Matched pairs design