1) What are the unique characteristics of water that allow it to support life on earth?
2) List 5 organelles and their essential functions.
3) List 3 features of plant cells that are not present in animal cells.
4) What are the key differences between RNA and DNA in structure/ composition? In function in the cell?
5) Identify 4 human diseases that are viral in origin and the specific virus that causes them.
6) List 3 key differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
7) Provide examples of cells in the human body that employ cilia and flagella.
8) What would be the most appropriate microscopy tool for visualizing the 3D surface of a damaged bone? For viewing a thin slice of tissue stained with hemotoxylin and eosin?
Module 2 Case
1) Why are enzymes critical to the function of cells? That is, why not simply let chemical reaction occur without interference?
2) What type of molecules are enzymes (i.e., lipids, nucleic acids, etc)?
3) What wavelengths of light are best suited for use in photosynthesis?
4) Why is photosynthesis critical to nearly every life form, not just plants and algae?
5) If animals exercise anaerobically (without sufficient oxygen) for an extended period of time, lactic acid accumulates in their muscles and causes cramping. In the context of cellular respiration, explain why this phenomenon occurs.
6) Briefly explain the function of ATP synthase and the importance of ATP to all cells.
7) Why would a typical animal cell lyses (explode) if placed into a container of plain water?
8) What is the difference between passive and active transport through a cell membrane? Which method allows a cell to concentrate a substance inside itself?
Module 3 Case
1) To what kingdom would a single-celled, nucleated, photosynthetic organism belong?
2) What clues indicate that dogs are more closely related to cats than to lizards?
3) What features are common and distinct between plants and fungi?
4) What was the important scientific contribution of Carl Linnaeus?
5) What are Byrophytes?
6) Briefly explain the function of xylem and phloem.
7) What are the unique characteristics of Aves species?
8) In higher animals, what systems are responsible for homeostasis?
Module 4 Case
1) Assume the gene for dimples, d, is recessive. Then assume that two individuals with the genotypes Dd and dd mate. Create a Punnett square for this mating and state the probability that their offspring will have dimples.
2) Briefly explain epitasis.
3) List the steps of mitosis and briefly describe what happens in each
4) What is the role of mRNA in the synthesis of proteins?
5) What is an intron?
6) In the process of protein synthesis, what is the difference between transcription and translation?
7) For animals, what is the advantage of internal fertilization and what type of species utilize it?
8) What is the reproductive purpose of fruits?
9) What is the genetic advantage of sexual reproduction?
Module 5 Case
1) Why is the Hardy-Weinberg law useful?
2) Define genetic drift.
3) What factors influence the mutation rate of a population?
4) Briefly explain the difference between stabilizing selection, directional selection, and disruptive selection.
5) Why are layers of sedimentary rocks particularly useful for geochronology?
6) Choose three biomes and briefly describe their characteristics (including climate, common organisms, etc).
7) What is the difference between an ecosystem and a biome?
8) What is the role of primary consumers in a food chain? Give an example of a primary consumer in a terrestrial and an aquatic ecosystem.
9) What are niches and competitive exclusion?