SPSS 1: Include releveant SPSS output. State whether your decision is to reject or retain the null hypothesis and the decision value. Provide an APA-style summary. Steven Schmidt (1994) conducted a series of experiments examining the effects of humor on memory. In one study, participants were given a mix of humorous and nonhumorous sentences and significantly more humorous sentences were recalled. However, Schmidt argued that the humorous sentences were not necessarily easier to remember; they were simply preferred when participants had a choice between the two types of sentence. To test this argument, he switched to an independent-measures design in which one group got a set of humorous sentences and another group got a set of nonhumorous sentences. The following data are similar to the results from the study.
|Humorous Sentences||Nonhumorous Sentences|
|4, 5, 2, 4,
6, 7, 6, 6,
2, 5, 4, 3,
3, 3, 5, 3
|6, 3, 5, 3,
3, 4, 2, 6,
4, 3, 4, 4,
5, 2, 6, 4
Do the results indicate a significant difference in the recall of humorous versus nonhumorous sentences? Use a two-tailed test with ? =.05.
SPSS 2: Include relevant SPSS output. State whether your decision was to reject the null hypothesis and why based on the decision criterion. Provide an APA-style summary. At the Olympic-level of competition, even the smallest factors can make the difference between winning and losing. For example, Pelton (1983) has shown that Olympic marksmen shoot much better if they fire between heartbeats, rather than squeezing the trigger during a heartbeat. The small vibration caused by a heartbeat seems to be sufficient to affect aim. A sample of n=8 Olympic marksmen fires a series of rounds while a researcher records heartbeats. For each marksman, a score is recorded for shots fired during heartbeats and for shots fired between heartbeats. Do these data indicate a significant difference? Test with ? =.05.
|Participant||During Heartbeats||Between Heartbeats|