A local government has issued a contract to design an upgrade to an existing IT system. Based on the results of a preliminary design review, the program manager believes that a critical driver of success of the upgrade is a new, untested technology that the company is proposing to use in the new system. Based on engineering analyses, the program manager believes: • There is an 85% chance that the new technology will be deployed successfully in the new system without impacting cost, schedule, and performance, a 12% chance of a moderate impact, and an 3% chance of a severe impact. • If there is no impact, the program manager forecasts a 70% chance of no cost overrun, a 20% chance of up to a $100,000 cost overrun and a 10% chance of an overrun greater than $100,000. A moderate impact means 50% chance of no overrun, a 40% chance of up to a $100,000 overrun, and a 10% chance of overrun greater than $100,000. A severe impact means a 20% chance of no overrun, a 40% chance of up to a $100,000 overrun, and a 40% chance of greater than $100,000 overrun. • If there is no impact, the program manager forecasts an 80% chance of on-time delivery, a 19% chance of up to a 6-month delay and a 1% chance of a delay greater than six months. A moderate impact means 60% chance of on-time delivery, a 30% chance of up to a 6-month delay, and a 10% chance of delay greater than six months. A severe impact means a 20% chance of on-time delivery, a 50% chance of up to a 6-month delay, and a 30% chance of delay greater than six months. • If there is no impact, the program manager forecasts a 40% chance of excellent performance, a 55% chance of acceptable performance and a 5% chance of unacceptable performance. A moderate impact means 20% chance of excellent performance, a 60% chance of acceptable performance, and a 20% chance of unacceptable performance. A severe impact means a 5% chance of excellent performance, a 65% chance of acceptable performance, and a 30% chance of unacceptable performance. Construct a Bayesian network to model this problem

A local government has issued a contract to design an upgrade to an existing IT system. Based on the results of a preliminary design review, the program manager believes that a critical driver of success of the upgrade is a new, untested technology that the company is proposing to use in the new system. Based on engineering analyses, the program manager believes: • There is an 85% chance that the new technology will be deployed successfully in the new system without impacting cost, schedule, and performance, a 12% chance of a moderate impact, and an 3% chance of a severe impact. • If there is no impact, the program manager forecasts a 70% chance of no cost overrun, a 20% chance of up to a $100,000 cost overrun and a 10% chance of an overrun greater than $100,000. A moderate impact means 50% chance of no overrun, a 40% chance of up to a $100,000 overrun, and a 10% chance of overrun greater than $100,000. A severe impact means a 20% chance of no overrun, a 40% chance of up to a $100,000 overrun, and a 40% chance of greater than $100,000 overrun. • If there is no impact, the program manager forecasts an 80% chance of on-time delivery, a 19% chance of up to a 6-month delay and a 1% chance of a delay greater than six months. A moderate impact means 60% chance of on-time delivery, a 30% chance of up to a 6-month delay, and a 10% chance of delay greater than six months. A severe impact means a 20% chance of on-time delivery, a 50% chance of up to a 6-month delay, and a 30% chance of delay greater than six months. • If there is no impact, the program manager forecasts a 40% chance of excellent performance, a 55% chance of acceptable performance and a 5% chance of unacceptable performance. A moderate impact means 20% chance of excellent performance, a 60% chance of acceptable performance, and a 20% chance of unacceptable performance. A severe impact means a 5% chance of excellent performance, a 65% chance of acceptable performance, and a 30% chance of unacceptable performance. Construct a Bayesian network to model this problem

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Sharpening Your Communication Skills Interviewing a full-service broker is one of the most important steps you can take before hiring that broker to execute your trades or manage your funds and investment portfolio. Practice your communication skills by developing two sets of questions: 1. Questions you might ask a stockbroker to help you decide whether you would use his or her services. 2. Questions you might pose to that broker to help you evaluate the merits of purchasing a specific security. Building Your Team Skills You and your team are going to pool your money and invest $5,000. Before you plunge into any investments, how can you prepare yourselves to be good investors? First, consider your group’s goals. What will you and your teammates do with any profits generated by your investments? Once you have agreed on a goal for your team’s profits, think about how much money you will need to achieve this goal and how soon you want to achieve it. Next, think about how much risk you personally are willing to take to achieve the goal. Bear in mind that safer investments generally off er lower returns than riskier investments—and certain investments, such as stocks, can lose money. Now hold a group discussion to find a level of risk that feels comfortable for everyone on your team. Aft er your team has decided how much risk to take, consider which investments are best suited to your group’s goals and chosen risk level. Will you choose stocks, bonds, a combination of both, or other securities? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each type of investment for your team’s situation? Then come to a decision about specific investment opportunities—particular stocks, for example—that your group would like to investigate further. Compare your group’s goal, risk level, and investment possibilities with those of the other teams in your class and discuss the differences and similarities you see. Developing Your Research Skills Stock market analysts advise investors (both individuals and institutions) on which stocks to buy, sell, or hold. Changes in their opinions are called upgrades or downgrades , depending on the direction of their outlook. Changing a “hold” recommendation to a “buy” recommendation is an upgrade, for example. Find a stock that has been recently upgraded or downgraded (you can use New Ratings, www.newratings.com , or a similar source), and then perform some research on that company so you can answer the following questions. Question 1. Why did the analysts change their rating on this stock? Was it in response to something the company said or did? Is the company performing better or worse than its competitors? Do you think the rating change is fair to the company? 2. How did the rating change affect the company’s stock price? 3. How has the company’s stock been performing relative to the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) and S&P 500 indexes?

Sharpening Your Communication Skills

Interviewing a full-service broker is one of the most important steps you can take before hiring that broker to execute your trades or manage your funds and investment portfolio. Practice your communication skills by developing two sets of questions:

1. Questions you might ask a stockbroker to help you decide whether you would use his or her services. 2. Questions you might pose to that broker to help you evaluate the merits of purchasing a specific security.

Building Your Team Skills

You and your team are going to pool your money and invest $5,000. Before you plunge into any investments, how can you prepare yourselves to be good investors? First, consider your group’s goals. What will you and your teammates do with any profits generated by your investments? Once you have agreed on a goal for your team’s profits, think about how much money you will need to achieve this goal and how soon you want to achieve it. Next, think about how much risk you personally are willing to take to achieve the goal. Bear in mind that safer investments generally off er lower returns than riskier investments—and certain investments, such as stocks, can lose money. Now hold a group discussion to find a level of risk that feels comfortable for everyone on your team. Aft er your team has decided how much risk to take, consider which investments are best suited to your group’s goals and chosen risk level. Will you choose stocks, bonds, a combination of both, or other securities? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each type of investment for your team’s situation? Then come to a decision about specific investment opportunities—particular stocks, for example—that your group would like to investigate further. Compare your group’s goal, risk level, and investment possibilities with those of the other teams in your class and discuss the differences and similarities you see.

Developing Your Research Skills

Stock market analysts advise investors (both individuals and institutions) on which stocks to buy, sell, or hold. Changes in their opinions are called upgrades or downgrades , depending on the direction of their outlook. Changing a “hold” recommendation to a “buy” recommendation is an upgrade, for example. Find a stock that has been recently upgraded or downgraded (you can use New Ratings, www.newratings.com , or a similar source), and then perform some research on that company so you can answer the following questions.

Question

1. Why did the analysts change their rating on this stock? Was it in response to something the company said or did? Is the company performing better or worse than its competitors? Do you think the rating change is fair to the company?

2. How did the rating change affect the company’s stock price?

3. How has the company’s stock been performing relative to the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) and S&P 500 indexes?

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Watch Dateline episode of Food Fight (about 40 minutes long) and answer the following questions: Who is responsible for childhood obesity? Were you surprised by the Fruit Versus Rock experiment? Why or why not? Describe your opinion on the phrase “Food Addict”. Should this be a clinical diagnosis? (food vs cocaine addiction article) What are the pros and cons of a healthier oreo? Do you think the food industry police itself? Have you heard of the documentaries Supersize Me and/or Portion Size Me? What are the differences? How has Ronald McDonald changed? What is your opinion on having calorie counts in restaurants?

Watch Dateline episode of Food Fight (about 40 minutes long) and answer the following questions:

Who is responsible for childhood obesity?

Were you surprised by the Fruit Versus Rock experiment? Why or why not?

Describe your opinion on the phrase “Food Addict”. Should this be a clinical diagnosis? (food vs cocaine addiction article)

What are the pros and cons of a healthier oreo?

Do you think the food industry police itself?

Have you heard of the documentaries Supersize Me and/or Portion Size Me? What are the differences?

How has Ronald McDonald changed?

What is your opinion on having calorie counts in restaurants?

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Top Employer Ratings for Compensation and Benefits Resources Website icon Top Employer Ratings for Compensation and Benefits Scoring Guide.Website icon Capella Undergraduate Online Writing Center – APA Citing and Referencing. Based on your research about top employers, prepare a chart listing at least 10 of the employers, their ranking on the list, and the compensation or benefit that was cited as a reason for being a top employer. Next, review your list of employers. Can you make any determination from that list? Is there a pattern that makes for a top employer in compensation and benefits? Prepare an analysis of your findings in a report and conclude with a recommendation for your current or desired HR manager. Explain what standards you think are critical to becoming recognized as a top employer with excellent compensation and benefits policies. In other words, create the standard you think your company should follow. Your report should be no more than 2 pages. Review the scoring guide for this assignment before submitting your completed report

Top Employer Ratings for Compensation and Benefits
Resources
Website icon Top Employer Ratings for Compensation and Benefits Scoring Guide.Website icon Capella Undergraduate Online Writing Center – APA Citing and Referencing.
Based on your research about top employers, prepare a chart listing at least 10 of the employers, their ranking on the list, and the compensation or benefit that was cited as a reason for being a top employer.

Next, review your list of employers. Can you make any determination from that list? Is there a pattern that makes for a top employer in compensation and benefits?

Prepare an analysis of your findings in a report and conclude with a recommendation for your current or desired HR manager. Explain what standards you think are critical to becoming recognized as a top employer with excellent compensation and benefits policies. In other words, create the standard you think your company should follow.

Your report should be no more than 2 pages. Review the scoring guide for this assignment before submitting your completed report

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Employee Orientation Programs Resources Website icon Employee Orientation Programs Scoring Guide.Website icon Capella Undergraduate Online Writing Center: APA Style and Format. Complete all of the following tasks to ensure that you fulfill all of the requirements of this assignment. One of the earliest employee contacts with the training function is through an orientation program, which should be designed to distribute information to new employees quickly and efficiently. For this assignment, you are to present an outline for an orientation program to DNA’s manager of training. The orientation program will provide a development process for the growth of the employee. Complete the following: •Review the Employee Orientation Programs Scoring Guide to ensure that you have met the requirements for this assignment. •Write a 1–2-page paper outlining the employee orientation program. •Your outline should include: ?A purpose statement. ?Elements of the program. ?Method of delivery for each module. ?A plan for evaluating the program upon completion and six months into an employee’s tenure with the company

Employee Orientation Programs
Resources
Website icon Employee Orientation Programs Scoring Guide.Website icon Capella Undergraduate Online Writing Center: APA Style and Format.
Complete all of the following tasks to ensure that you fulfill all of the requirements of this assignment.

One of the earliest employee contacts with the training function is through an orientation program, which should be designed to distribute information to new employees quickly and efficiently.

For this assignment, you are to present an outline for an orientation program to DNA's manager of training. The orientation program will provide a development process for the growth of the employee. Complete the following:

•Review the Employee Orientation Programs Scoring Guide to ensure that you have met the requirements for this assignment.
•Write a 1–2-page paper outlining the employee orientation program.
•Your outline should include:
?A purpose statement.
?Elements of the program.
?Method of delivery for each module.
?A plan for evaluating the program upon completion and six months into an employee's tenure with the company

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Managing Labor Costs Resources Website icon Managing Labor Costs Scoring Guide.Website icon Capella Undergraduate Online Writing Center – APA Citing and Referencing. The text describes a bottom-up and top-down approach to managing labor costs. For this assignment, complete the following: •Describe the components of both approaches and decide which would be most important to use in either your current work environment or one with which you are familiar, and explain your reasoning. •Also include a discussion about the approach you did not select, and describe a scenario in which this approach would be most effective. For example, if you choose the top-down approach to describe your workplace, or a workplace with which you are familiar, then in the second part of the assignment you will discuss the bottom-up approach and describe a scenario in which this would be an effective way to manage labor costs. •In both parts of your response, imagine that managers will be part of the budgeting process and will amend, revise, or adopt new approaches to compensating, rewarding, and incentivizing the workforce. In your opinion, what are the advantages and disadvantages of this type of management involvement? Your assignment will need to be 2–3 pages in length, and please be sure to cite all information obtained from outside resources

Managing Labor Costs
Resources
Website icon Managing Labor Costs Scoring Guide.Website icon Capella Undergraduate Online Writing Center – APA Citing and Referencing.
The text describes a bottom-up and top-down approach to managing labor costs. For this assignment, complete the following:

•Describe the components of both approaches and decide which would be most important to use in either your current work environment or one with which you are familiar, and explain your reasoning.
•Also include a discussion about the approach you did not select, and describe a scenario in which this approach would be most effective. For example, if you choose the top-down approach to describe your workplace, or a workplace with which you are familiar, then in the second part of the assignment you will discuss the bottom-up approach and describe a scenario in which this would be an effective way to manage labor costs.
•In both parts of your response, imagine that managers will be part of the budgeting process and will amend, revise, or adopt new approaches to compensating, rewarding, and incentivizing the workforce. In your opinion, what are the advantages and disadvantages of this type of management involvement?
Your assignment will need to be 2–3 pages in length, and please be sure to cite all information obtained from outside resources

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I need help with the case memo attached. Please read all of the attachment. Needs to be at least 2 pages. Case Memos #1 In this assignment, students will read and analyze a case study. In response to the case study, students will write an analysis in business memo format, addressed to the Board of Directors for the company. The memo is written by the student acting as a hired consultant for the company. The case study to be analyzed, Giant Motors Recall Policy, is attached. By completing this assignment, students will meet the outcome(s): • identify ethical issues that arise in domestic and global business environments using an understanding of ethical concepts and of legal and business principles; • develop and evaluate alternatives to, and recommend solutions for, ethical dilemmas, taking into account ethical and legal requirements and the essential mission of the business enterprise • effectively communicate to internal and external business stakeholders the complexities of ethical issues, suggesting and analyzing various solutions in order to ensure appropriate business practices and accountability Requirements of Case Memo #1: • Draft memo using the prescribe format (subheadings/sections) prescribed below; • All sections must be comprehensive, in-depth and fully justified; • Resources from previously assigned course materials or from your own research may be used to justify and support rationale; • All in-text citations and resources must be in APA style; • Submit the completed case in the Assignment Folder. Memorandum Format: TO: FROM: RE: DATE: INTRODUCTION: Brief 1-paragraph intro to subject of memo. FACTS SUMMARY: Summarize and explain the facts that are directly significant and relevant to the ethical dilemma in this case. ETHICAL DILEMMA: Discuss the either/or ethical dilemma facing the company. ETHICAL ISSUE: Discuss the most significant ethical issue (there is more than one, but choose one) related to, and arising from, the ethical dilemma and then, explain the ethical issue and why it is an ethical/moral issue, etc. ALTERNATIVES: List, explain and justify two (2) possible alternatives/solutions to address and resolve the ethical dilemma and ethical issue discussed above. Each alternative should be comprehensive so that it addresses the related ethical issue. Alternatives should be feasible, logical, directly related to resolving the ethical dilemma and addressing the ethical issues in the case. Alternatives are expressed in the form of propositions or prescriptive statements suggesting action and are framed by asking the normative question, what could or should the company do? Consider consequences. Identify relevant stakeholders and the effects on them, pros and cons, etc. of each alternative. Apply ethical theories in context of your evaluations, but do not overdo this aspect. For example, teleological or consequentialist theorists would examine who the stakeholders are, both internal and external to the company, and the positive and negative consequences for each stakeholder group, etc. RECOMMENDATION: Recommend one and only one (1) alternative from the two (2) alternatives suggested above. Justify and explain your choice discussing: • why you chose this alternative • how, specifically, the recommendation will address the ethical dilemma and ethical issues • how the recommendation will likely impact relevant stakeholders • pros and cons of recommendation • feasibility of recommendation • how the recommendation will be implemented • Apply ethical theories, resources from previously assigned course materials, or resources from your own research to justify and support your recommendation. FUTURE IMPLICATIONS for RECOMMENDATION: Discuss potential implications arising from recommendation for: • the company • other businesses within the industry • other industries CONCLUSION: Summarize the case and its ethical issues, implications, etc. Case Memo 1 Case Ethics Case Problem (GIANT MOTORS RECALL POLICY) Giant Motors, a large auto manufacturer headquartered in the Midwest, has had a difficult decade in terms of the downturn in the economy, profits turning into losses, leadership, and legal issues. Recently it seems to have turned the corner on all fronts and is profitable again. Unfortunately, a major controversy regarding the safety of its automobiles has arisen. The company has been forced to recall many of its 2007-2011 automobiles because of steering malfunctions, which have lead to a number of accidents and a reported 40 fatalities since 2007. The press, the National Transportation Board, and consumer groups are pounding Giant about its failure to issue a recall years ago when the steering problems were first reported to Giant, claiming that lives could have been saved, and injuries prevented had Giant issued an earlier recall. In the past, Giant has issued recalls when ordered to by the government, or when there is a clear pattern of a defect leading to injuries. In this case, Giant contends that no such pattern existed and of course there was no recall demand by government agencies; that reports of the steering problem were sporadic, vague, and the link between to steering issue and the injuries/deaths unproven. Historically, Giant and other manufacturers are inundated with false claims of manufacturing defects. Giant contends that trial lawyers are famous for alleging manufacturing defects that are never proven. If recalls were made based on anecdotal evidence, or on the basis of a few defects in the millions of vehicles produced annually, the company would have gone out of business years ago. Giant, like most other manufacturing companies, uses a cost benefit analysis when it comes to consumer safety. Recognizing that no vehicle will ever be perfectly safe, it installs safety features, and recalls models for defects when the threat to consumer safety outweighs the cost of the safety feature or the recall. Often times, this is guess work. The Ford Pinto case, going back forty years is the classic example. Allegedly, Ford engineers that the placement of the gas tank in the Pinto would cause some small number of fires upon impact, leading to injuries and death. However this small number did not justify a re-engineering of the Pinto to make it safer – the costs of such a reengineering would cost more than anticipated profits. The anticipated small number of claims filed for death or injury would be satisfied within the anticipated profit margin. In the Ford Pinto case, the cost benefit analysis was flawed and far more injuries, deaths, and claims occurred. You are hired as a consultant to submit a plan to Giant on revision of its recall policy. In particular Giant advises that it wants to have a sound ethical basis for its recall policy, as well as a financially sustainable policy. (The company cannot simply recall all units of a model simply because there is a safety complaint about one or several vehicles of that model.) In formulating your recommendation, consider the material in your readings, class discussions, and include the following: criteria for recall; percentage of vehicles in model line reporting defects before recall is considered; timing of investigation of reported defects; whether and how an estimates of the number of injuries, deaths, and dollar amounts for claims should enter into the recall decision. Case MeMemo #1 Grading Rubric (15%) Outstanding Superior Good Substandard Failure 5.25 4.46 3.94 3.41 2.89 Critical thinking/reasoning demonstrates a high degree of critical thinking, is consistent in accurately interpreting questions & material; provides solid assumptions, reasoning & claims; thorough analysis & evaluation with sound conclusions shows good critical thinking; accurately interprets most questions & material; usually identifies relevant arguments/reasoning/claims; offers good analysis & evaluation with fairly sound conclusions shows occasional critical thinking; questions & material is at times accurately interpreted; arguments/reasoning/claims are occasionally explained; offers fair analysis & evaluation with a conclusion shows little critical thinking, misinterprets questions or material; ignores or superficially evaluates; justifies little and seldom explains reasoning; draws unwarranted conclusions lacks critical thinking consistently offers biased interpretations; ignores or superficially evaluates; argues using poor reasoning, and/or unwarranted claims 5.25 4.46 3.94 3.41 2.89 Application of concepts/development arguments or positions are well-supported with evidence from the readings/experience; ideas go beyond the course material and recognize implication and extensions of the material and concepts arguments or positions are mostly supported by evidence from the readings and course content; ideas presented demonstrate student’s understanding of the material and concepts arguments are more often based on opinion or unclear views than on position grounded in the readings of material or external sources of material arguments are frequently illogical and unsubstantiated; student may resort to ad hominem attacks on the author instead of making meaningful application of the material a meaningful attempt to explain or support ideas does not exist 2.25 1.91 1.69 1.46 1.24 Attention to instructions demonstrated full understanding of requirements responded to each aspect of assignment demonstrated understanding of requirements; missed one minor aspect of assignment demonstrated some understanding of requirements; missed a key element or two minor aspects of assignment failed to show a firm understanding of requirements; missed two key elements or several minor aspects of assignment did not demonstrate understanding of assignment requirements 1.50 1.28 1.13 .98 .83 Clarity, including grammar writing is clear and easy to follow; grammar and spelling are all correct; formatting gives a professional look and adds to readability most ideas are presented clearly; occasional spelling and/or grammar issues wordy; some points require rereading to understand fully; more than an occasional spelling and/or grammar unclear and difficult to understand; frequent spelling and grammar issues largely incomprehensible writing/poorly written in terms of mechanics and structure .75 .64 0.56 .49 .41 Adherence to APA style (6th ed.) no APA style errors attempts in-text citation and reference list but 1 or 2 APA style errors are present attempts in-text citation and reference listing; APA style errors are present: inconsistencies in citation usage can be found throughout the document attempts either in-text citation or reference list but omits the other no attempt at APA style

I need help with the case memo attached. Please read all of the attachment. Needs to be at least 2 pages.
 Case Memos #1
In this assignment, students will read and analyze a case study.  In response to the case study, students will write an analysis in business memo format, addressed to the Board of Directors for the company.  The memo is written by the student acting as a hired consultant for the company.
The case study to be analyzed, Giant Motors Recall Policy, is attached. 
By completing this assignment, students will meet the outcome(s):
•	identify ethical issues that arise in domestic and global business environments using an understanding of ethical concepts and of legal and business principles;
•	develop and evaluate alternatives to, and recommend solutions for, ethical dilemmas, taking into account ethical and legal requirements and the essential mission of the business enterprise
•	effectively communicate to internal and external business stakeholders the complexities of ethical issues, suggesting and analyzing various solutions in order to ensure appropriate business practices and accountability
Requirements of Case Memo #1: 
•	Draft memo using the prescribe format (subheadings/sections) prescribed below;
•	All sections must be comprehensive, in-depth and fully justified; 
•	Resources from previously assigned course materials or from your own research may be used to justify and support rationale; 
•	All in-text citations and resources must be in APA style;
•	Submit the completed case in the Assignment Folder. 
Memorandum Format:
TO:
FROM:
RE:
DATE:
 
INTRODUCTION:  Brief 1-paragraph intro to subject of memo.
FACTS SUMMARY:  Summarize and explain the facts that are directly significant and relevant to the ethical dilemma in this case.  
ETHICAL DILEMMA:  Discuss the either/or ethical dilemma facing the company.  
ETHICAL ISSUE:  Discuss the most significant ethical issue (there is more than one, but choose one) related to, and arising from, the ethical dilemma and then, explain the ethical issue and why it is an ethical/moral issue, etc.  
ALTERNATIVES:  List, explain and justify two (2) possible alternatives/solutions to address and resolve the ethical dilemma and ethical issue discussed above.   Each alternative should be comprehensive so that it addresses the related ethical issue.
Alternatives should be feasible, logical, directly related to resolving the ethical dilemma and addressing the ethical issues in the case.
Alternatives are expressed in the form of propositions or prescriptive statements suggesting action and are framed by asking the normative question, what could or should the company do? Consider consequences.  Identify relevant stakeholders and the effects on them, pros and cons, etc. of each alternative. Apply ethical theories in context of your evaluations, but do not overdo this aspect.  For example, teleological or consequentialist theorists would examine who the stakeholders are, both internal and external to the company, and the positive and negative consequences for each stakeholder group, etc.
RECOMMENDATION:  Recommend one and only one (1) alternative from the two (2) alternatives suggested above.   Justify and explain your choice discussing:
•	why you chose this alternative
•	how, specifically, the recommendation will address the ethical dilemma and ethical issues
•	how the recommendation will likely impact relevant stakeholders
•	pros and cons of recommendation
•	feasibility of recommendation
•	how the recommendation will be implemented
•	Apply ethical theories, resources from previously assigned course materials, or resources from your own research to justify and support your recommendation. 
FUTURE IMPLICATIONS for RECOMMENDATION:  Discuss potential implications arising from recommendation for: 
•	the company
•	other businesses within the industry
•	other industries
CONCLUSION:   Summarize the case and its ethical issues, implications, etc.
Case Memo 1 Case
 
 
 
 
Ethics Case Problem (GIANT MOTORS RECALL POLICY)
 
 
 
Giant Motors, a large auto manufacturer headquartered in the Midwest, has had a difficult decade in terms of the downturn in the economy, profits turning into losses, leadership, and legal issues. Recently it seems to have turned the corner on all fronts and is profitable again. Unfortunately, a major controversy regarding the safety of its automobiles has arisen.
 
 
 
The company has been forced to recall many of its 2007-2011 automobiles because of steering malfunctions, which have lead to a number of accidents and a reported 40 fatalities since 2007. The press, the National Transportation Board, and consumer groups are pounding Giant about its failure to issue a recall years ago when the steering problems were first reported to Giant, claiming that lives could have been saved, and injuries prevented had Giant issued an earlier recall.
 
 
 
In the past, Giant has issued recalls when ordered to by the government, or when there is a clear pattern of a defect leading to injuries. In this case, Giant contends that no such pattern existed and of course there was no recall demand by government agencies; that reports of the steering problem were sporadic, vague, and the link between to steering issue and the injuries/deaths unproven.
 
 
 
Historically, Giant and other manufacturers are inundated with false claims of manufacturing defects. Giant contends that trial lawyers are famous for alleging manufacturing defects that are never proven. If recalls were made based on anecdotal evidence, or on the basis of a few defects in the millions of vehicles produced annually, the company would have gone out of business years ago. Giant, like most other manufacturing companies, uses a cost benefit analysis when it comes to consumer safety.  Recognizing that no vehicle will ever be perfectly safe, it installs safety features, and recalls models for defects when the threat to consumer safety outweighs the cost of the safety feature or the recall. Often times, this is guess work.  The Ford Pinto case, going back forty years is the classic example. Allegedly, Ford engineers that the placement of the gas tank in the Pinto would cause some small number of fires upon impact, leading to injuries and death. However this small number did not justify a re-engineering of the Pinto to make it safer – the costs of such a reengineering would cost more than anticipated profits. The anticipated small number of claims filed for death or injury would be satisfied within the anticipated profit margin. In the Ford Pinto case, the cost benefit analysis was flawed and far more injuries, deaths, and claims occurred.
 
 
 
You are hired as a consultant to submit a plan to Giant on revision of its recall policy. In particular Giant advises that it wants to have a sound ethical basis for its recall policy, as well as a financially sustainable policy. (The company cannot simply recall all units of a model simply because there is a safety complaint about one or several vehicles of that model.)
 
 
 
In formulating your recommendation, consider the material in your readings, class discussions, and include the following: criteria for recall; percentage of vehicles in model line reporting defects before recall is considered; timing of investigation of reported defects; whether and how an estimates of the number of injuries, deaths, and dollar amounts for claims should enter into the recall decision. 
Case MeMemo #1 Grading Rubric (15%)
 	Outstanding	Superior	Good	Substandard	Failure
 	5.25	4.46	3.94	3.41	2.89
Critical thinking/reasoning	demonstrates a high degree of critical thinking, is consistent in accurately interpreting questions & material; provides solid assumptions, reasoning & claims; thorough analysis & evaluation with sound conclusions	shows good critical thinking; accurately interprets most questions & material; usually identifies relevant arguments/reasoning/claims; offers good analysis & evaluation with fairly sound conclusions	shows occasional critical thinking; questions & material is at times accurately interpreted; arguments/reasoning/claims are occasionally explained; offers fair analysis & evaluation with a conclusion	shows little critical thinking, misinterprets questions or material; ignores or superficially evaluates; justifies little and seldom explains reasoning; draws unwarranted conclusions
 
 	lacks critical thinking consistently offers biased interpretations; ignores or superficially evaluates; argues using poor reasoning, and/or unwarranted claims
 	5.25	4.46	3.94	3.41	2.89
Application of concepts/development	arguments or positions are well-supported with evidence from the readings/experience; ideas go beyond the course material and recognize implication and extensions of the material and concepts	arguments or positions are mostly supported by evidence from the readings and course content; ideas presented demonstrate student’s understanding of the material and concepts	arguments are more often based on opinion or unclear views than on position grounded  in the readings of material or external sources of material	arguments are frequently illogical and unsubstantiated; student may resort to ad hominem attacks on the author instead of making meaningful application of the material	a meaningful attempt to explain or support ideas does not exist
 	2.25	1.91	1.69	1.46	1.24
Attention to instructions	demonstrated full understanding of requirements responded to each aspect of assignment	demonstrated understanding of requirements; missed one minor aspect of assignment	demonstrated some understanding of requirements; missed a key element or two minor aspects of assignment	failed to show a firm understanding of requirements; missed two key elements or several minor aspects of assignment	did not demonstrate understanding of assignment requirements
 	1.50	1.28	1.13	.98	.83
Clarity, including grammar	writing is clear and easy to follow; grammar and spelling are all correct;  formatting gives a professional look and adds to readability	most ideas are presented clearly; occasional spelling and/or grammar issues	wordy; some points require rereading to understand fully; more than an occasional spelling and/or grammar	unclear and difficult to understand; frequent spelling and grammar issues	largely incomprehensible writing/poorly written in terms of mechanics and structure
 	.75	.64	0.56	.49	.41
Adherence to APA style  (6th ed.)	no APA style errors	attempts in-text citation and reference list but 1 or 2 APA style errors are present	attempts in-text citation and reference listing; APA style errors are present: inconsistencies in citation usage can be found throughout the document	attempts either in-text citation or reference list but omits the other	no attempt at APA style

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1. Select a company with the following characteristics: a. it should not be a brokerage house or finance related firm. b. only select firms which have their Beta listed in finance.yahoo.com, and have long term debt (non-convertible debt) in their capital structure. c. it should have its stock and bond prices quoted in finance.yahoo.com. d. its Free Cash Flow (FCF) in 2013 is positive. 2. Presenting the following by estimating (do not forget to answer the questions listed under c below): a. The firm’s WACC b. The intrinsic value of the firm and the common stock. c. Write a paragraph on each of the following issues: – what can the firm do to lower their cost of capital – if you had any money to invest in this firm now, why would you or not invest in this firm based on where you see this firm. 3. Keeping in mind the following presentation style: State in clear and simple terms how you came up with all estimates. Identify all the assumptions and models used to derive the estimates. As far as it is relevant to the presentation of the estimates, explain the workings of these models. Keep the report clear and concise. In order to present these estimates, you will need to calculate: a. The firm’s cost of equity using: CAPM or Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) models b. The firm’s cost of long term debt and preferred stock c. Cost of capital of the firm (WACC) d. The intrinsic value of the firm and its common stock

1. Select a company with the following characteristics:
a. it should not be a brokerage house or finance related firm.
b. only select firms which have their Beta listed in finance.yahoo.com, and have long term debt (non-convertible debt) in their capital structure.
c. it should have its stock and bond prices quoted in finance.yahoo.com.
d. its Free Cash Flow (FCF) in 2013 is positive.

2. Presenting the following by estimating (do not forget to answer the questions listed under c below):
a. The firm’s WACC
b. The intrinsic value of the firm and the common stock.
c. Write a paragraph on each of the following issues:
- what can the firm do to lower their cost of capital
- if you had any money to invest in this firm now, why would you or not invest in this firm based on where you see this firm.

3. Keeping in mind the following presentation style:

State in clear and simple terms how you came up with all estimates. Identify all the assumptions and models used to derive the estimates. As far as it is relevant to the presentation of the estimates, explain the workings of these models. Keep the report clear and concise.

In order to present these estimates, you will need to calculate:

a. The firm’s cost of equity using: CAPM or Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) models
b. The firm’s cost of long term debt and preferred stock
c. Cost of capital of the firm (WACC)
d. The intrinsic value of the firm and its common stock

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Hi, please I was wondering if you can check my work. I need help in punctuation and If you notice a big horrible mistake please let me know. Thank you !! Chapter 4 4.1 Audience Benefits and the You View YOUR TASK. Revise the following sentences to emphasize the perspective of the audience and the “you” view. a. We have prepared the enclosed form that may be used by victims to report identity theft to creditors. Because your financial security is important to us, please use the enclosed form to report identity theft b. To help us process you order with our new database software need you to go to our website and fill out the customer information required. To process your order more efficiently, please complete the customer information required in our website. c. We are now offering RapidaAssist, a software program we have developed to provide immediate technical support through our website to your employees and customers. Now a new software program can provide to your employees and customers technical support through our website. d. We find it necessary to restrict parking in the new company lot to those employee vehicles with “A” permits. All employee vehicles with “A” permits are required to relocated permanently from the new company lot to the other areas of parking e. To avoid suffering the kinds of monetary losses experienced in the past, our credit union now prohibits the cashing of double endorsed checks presented by our customers. Because our credit union cares about your welfare and your financial priorities, the credit union had the decision of no longer accepting cashing double endorsed checks. f. Our warranty goes into effect only when we have received the product’s registration card from the purchaser. When a customer decides to acquire our products, you also receive the best quality and guaranty as soon you return your product’s registration card. g. Unfortunately, the computer and telephone systems will be down Thursday afternoon when we will be installing upgrades to improve both systems. Computer and telephones systems are upgrading to improve better service to you, and Installation will be on Thursday. h. As part of our company effort to be friendly to the environment, we are asking all employees to reduce paper consumption by communicating by e-mail and avoiding printing. The company is making a special invitation to all the employees, to be friendly to the environment; by reducing paper consumption and communication by email, and avoiding as possible printing. Together our effort will make a big difference. 4.3 Positive and Courteous Expression (Obj.4) YOUR TASK. Revise the following statement to make them more positive. a. Plans for a new community center cannot go forward without full community support. Having the entire support of the community, ensure the plans for a new community center. b. We must withhold authorizing payment of your contractor’s fee because our superintendent claims your work was incomplete. To authorizing the payment of your contractor’s fee, it is required to be complete your work. c. If you do not fill in all of the blanks in the application form, we cannot issue a password. To provide you a password, please fill and complete the application form. d. It is impossible for the builder to pour the concrete footings until the soil is no longer soggy Waiting for a favorable condition in the temperature will make possible, for the builder to pour the concrete footing. e. Although you apparently failed to consult the mounting instructions for your Miracle Wheatgrass Extractor, we are enclosing a set of clamps to fasten the device to a table. A new set of instructions is enclosed. We forward to receive completed your consult soon, about the mounting instructions of wheatgrass extractor. Hence, we enclose a set of clamps to fasten the device to the table is ready, and the new set of instructions is enclosed. f. We regret to announce that the special purchase price on iPads will be available only to the first 25 buyers. You can qualify for a special purchase price on IPads if you are the first 25 buyers. 4.4 Bias-Free Language YOUR TASK. Revise the following sentences to reduce gender, racial, ethnic, age and disability bias. a. Every employee must wear his photo identification on the job. All employee will wear his or her photo identification on the job b. The conference will offer special excursion for the wives of executives. The conference will offer special excursion for the spouses of executives c. Does each salesman have his own smartphone loaded with his special sales information? Does each sales representative have his or her smartphone loaded with special sales information? d. A policeman is responsible for covering his territory. A police officer is responsible for covering his or her territory e. Serving on the panel are a lady veterinarian, an Indian CPA, two businessmen, and a female doctor. Serving on the panel are a Veterinarian, a CPA, two Business person, and a doctor.

 Hi, please I was wondering if you can check my work. I need help in punctuation and If you notice a big horrible mistake please let me know. Thank you !! 

Chapter 4
4.1 Audience Benefits and the You View
YOUR TASK. Revise the following sentences to emphasize the perspective of the audience and the “you” view.
a.    We have prepared the enclosed form that may be used by victims to report identity theft to creditors.

Because your financial security is important to us, please use the enclosed form to report identity theft

b.    To help us process you order with our new database software need you to go to our website and fill out the customer information required.

To process your order more efficiently, please complete the customer information required in our website.

c.    We are now offering RapidaAssist, a software program we have developed to provide immediate technical support through our website to your employees and customers.

Now a new software program can provide to your employees and customers technical support through our website.

d.    We find it necessary to restrict parking in the new company lot to those employee vehicles with “A” permits.

All employee vehicles with “A” permits are required to relocated permanently from the new company lot to the other areas of parking

e.    To avoid suffering the kinds of monetary losses experienced in the past, our credit union now prohibits the cashing of double endorsed checks presented by our customers.

Because our credit union cares about your welfare and your financial priorities, the credit union had the decision of no longer accepting cashing double endorsed checks.

f.    Our warranty goes into effect only when we have received the product’s registration card from the purchaser.
When a customer decides to acquire our products, you also receive the best quality and guaranty as soon you return your product’s registration card.


g.    Unfortunately, the computer and telephone systems will be down Thursday afternoon when we will be installing upgrades to improve both systems. 

Computer and telephones systems are upgrading to improve better service to you, and Installation will be on Thursday. 

h.    As part of our company effort to be friendly to the environment, we are asking all employees to reduce paper consumption by communicating by e-mail and avoiding printing.

The company is making a special invitation to all the employees, to be friendly to the environment; by reducing paper consumption and communication by email, and avoiding as possible printing. Together our effort will make a big difference.


4.3 Positive and Courteous Expression (Obj.4)
YOUR TASK. Revise the following statement to make them more positive.
a.    Plans for a new community center cannot go forward without full community support.

Having the entire support of the community, ensure the plans for a new community center.

b.    We must withhold authorizing payment of your contractor’s fee because our superintendent claims your work was incomplete.

To authorizing the payment of your contractor’s fee, it is required to be complete your work.

c.    If you do not fill in all of the blanks in the application form, we cannot issue a password.

To provide you a password, please fill and complete the application form.

d.    It is impossible for the builder to pour the concrete footings until the soil is no longer soggy

Waiting for a favorable condition in the temperature will make possible, for the builder to pour the concrete footing.

e.    Although you apparently failed to consult the mounting instructions for your Miracle Wheatgrass Extractor, we are enclosing a set of clamps to fasten the device to a table. A new set of instructions is enclosed.

We forward to receive completed your consult soon, about the mounting instructions of wheatgrass extractor. Hence, we enclose a set of clamps to fasten the device to the table is ready, and the new set of instructions is enclosed.

f.    We regret to announce that the special purchase price on iPads will be available only to the first 25 buyers.
You can qualify for a special purchase price on IPads if you are the first 25 buyers. 
4.4 Bias-Free Language
YOUR TASK. Revise the following sentences to reduce gender, racial, ethnic, age and disability bias.
a.    Every employee must wear his photo identification on the job.

All employee will wear his or her photo identification on the job

b.    The conference will offer special excursion for the wives of executives.

The conference will offer special excursion for the spouses of executives

c.    Does each salesman have his own smartphone loaded with his special sales information?

Does each sales representative have his or her smartphone loaded with special sales information?

d.    A policeman is responsible for covering his territory.

A police officer is responsible for covering his or her territory

e.    Serving on the panel are a lady veterinarian, an Indian CPA, two businessmen, and a female doctor.
Serving on the panel are a Veterinarian, a CPA, two Business person, and a doctor.


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A company makes standard-specification kit-cars. The indicative order book for the next 3 months is a forecast of 640 cars broken down as follows: • January: 230 cars • February: 200 cars • March: 210 cars The company employs 20 full-time people who can each produce 9 cars a month at the cost of £500 per car. Inventory carrying costs are £50 per car per month and stockout costs are £590 per car per month. If the company has an inventory of 10 cars at the end of December, develop the following plans and select the least expensive. Highlight any assumptions you make in your calculations. • Plan A involves hiring no new workers or using overtime. Any shortfalls are made up with subcontracting at a cost of £675 per car • Plan B involves working overtime with each employee producing 1 extra car per month at an extra cost of £150 per car. • Plan C involves employing temporary workers on an as needed monthly basis with a hiring cost of £1000 per emplo

A company makes standard-specification kit-cars. The indicative order book for the next 3 months is a forecast of 640 cars broken down as follows:
• January: 230 cars
• February: 200 cars
• March: 210 cars
The company employs 20 full-time people who can each produce 9 cars a month at the cost of £500 per car. Inventory carrying costs are £50 per car per month and stockout costs are £590 per car per month. If the company has an inventory of 10 cars at the end of December, develop the following plans and select the least expensive. Highlight any assumptions you make in your calculations.
• Plan A involves hiring no new workers or using overtime. Any shortfalls are made up with subcontracting at a cost of £675 per car
• Plan B involves working overtime with each employee producing 1 extra car per month at an extra cost of £150 per car.
• Plan C involves employing temporary workers on an as needed monthly basis with a hiring cost of £1000 per emplo

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